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possession of by the British forces; the feet under the command of Admiral Parker, and the land forces under Sir H. Gough.
28.-Fall of the Melbourne Ministry. The debate on the Address, protracted over three nights, was concluded at 3 o'clock this morning, when Ministers found themselves in a minority of 91 in a House of 629. Lord John Russell moved a Committee of the Opposition to draw up an answer to the Addiess. In his closing speech as Minister, he said: “I am convinced that if this country is governed by enlarged and liberal counsels its power and might will spread and increase, and its influence will become greater and greater; Liberal principles will prevail, and civilization will be spread to all parts of the globe, and you will bless millions by your acts and mankind by your union.”
Meeting at the Thatched-house Tavern, presided over by Sir Robert Peel, for the purpose of considering the most appropriate method of doing honour to the memory of Sir David Wilkie. A statue in the National Gallery was ultimately resolved upon, and a subscription commenced for carrying it out. Lord John Russell proposed one of the resolutions. 29.
Envoy Macnaghten writes from Cabul : “ The Douranee chiefs who have been in rebellion must be effectually humbled, and we must put it out of their power to attempt any further mischief.
The Barukyze Sirdars took the only effectual method of keeping these gentry quiet. We must never dream of conciliation ; terror is the only instrument which they respect.' A few days later :“Everything has a favourable aspect for us, and Tezeen and Dehrawut having been subdued, a more solid foundation will have been laid for the tranquillity of this country than was ever dreamt of.... Whether or not we shall have another brigade in lieu of the returning troops will depend upon circumstances. My own opinion is, that we could easily do without them, unless operations beyond our present boundary are contemplated.
30.–Ministers intimate their resignation of office, in consequence of the vote on the Address.
31.—Sir Robert Peel sent for by the Queen, and undertakes to construct a Ministry.
September 1.--The Gresham Committee accept a tender for building the New Royal Exchange. Amount, Portland stone, 115, 900l.; magnesian limestone, 124,700l.
3.—The Gazette publishes a minute of the Council held at Claremont this day, when the new Ministers were sworn into office. First Lord of the Treasury, Sir Robert Peel; Lord Chancellor, Lord Lyndhurst ; President of the Council, Lord Wharncliffe; Home Secretary, Sir James Graham ; Foreign Secretary, Lord Aberdeen. Leader in the House of Lords, without office, Duke of Wellington.
7.-The Gazette announces several changes in the Household ofhces; the most importan! being the appointment of the Duchess of Buccleuch to be Mistress of the Robes, in room of the Duchess of Sutherland.
8.-New writs moved for the seats rendered vacant by the acceptance of office in the new Peel Ministry. The elections were, in most cases, unopposed, though Mr. Acland, an Anti-Corn Law candidate, was formally nominated at Tamworth and North Lancashire. The House resumed its sittings on the 16th.
9.-Twenty-five houses destroyed by fire at Fordington, near Dorchester.
Vauxhall Gardens sold by auction for 20,000l.
A party of British volunteers cross the frontier from Canada to the United States, and carry off Colonel Grogan.
11.-Strike of the masons at the new Houses of Parliament, owing to a dispute with the foreman regarding their “Union.”
13.–Attempt to assassinate the Duke of Orleans, while passing through Paris with three of his brothers at the head of the 17th Light Infantry. The shot did not take effect on the Duke, but one of the officers was wounded, and his horse shot under him.
14.-Mr. Gladstone, seeking re-election at Newark, states on the hustings : “There are two points on which the British farmer may rely ; the first of which is, that adequate protection will be given to him, and the second is, that protection will be given him through the means of the sliding scale."
16.-Riot at Monkwearmouth, on the occasion of “chairing” Lord Howick at the close of the poll with Attwood. A shower of stones was thrown from the Reform Tavern by Chartists, and the landlord, Liddell, fired a gun among the crowd. No one was seriously hurt, but the party in the street, exasperated by these proceedings, commenced an attack on the tavern, which they completely sacked, and to some extent destroyed. After some difficulty Liddell was apprehended, and the gun secure by Sir Hedworth Williamson.
17.-Sir Robert Peel's motion for a Committee of Supply leads to a lengthened debate on the general policy of the past as compared with the present Government. Mr. Fielden's amendment, that it was the duty of the House to inquire into the existing distress before voting supplies, was rejected by 149 to 41 votes.
19.-Death of Lord Sydenham (Poulett Thomson), Governor of Canada, from lock.jaw, the effects of a fall from his horse.
20.—Discussion in the House of Commons concerning the issue of a writ for Ripon, Si E. Sugden still continuing to occupy his seal although he had been appointed Lord Chan cellor for Ireland. Sir R. Peel defended hi Chancellor, as the appointment, though offerera was not yet completed.
21.-Robert Blakesley murders Bourden, the leaders, was soon afterwards apprehended landlord of the King's Head, Eastcheap, by and shot. stabbing him in the belly, and makes a mur.
7.--Parliament, described by the Whigs as derous attack with a knife on two women,--one of them the wife of the murdered man, and
“the Do-nothing," prorogued by Commission. the other her sister, wife of the murderer.
12.--Accident at the Victoria Theatre from - The lighthouse on Sunderland pier,
the gallery stairs giving way under the pressure weighing 300 tons, and 75 feet high from the
of a crowd. base, removed by screw power 140 feet from
– Major-Gen. Sir Robert Sale despatched its original position. This day it was moved by General Elphinstone from Cabul with the II feet in 15 minutes.
13th Light Infantry and the 35th Native In
fantry, to force thé Khoord Pass, the Ghilzie - London and Brighton Railway opened.
chiefs having gathered at Tezeen, with the 23.-The freedom of the City of London view of cutting off communication with British presented to Admiral Sir R. Śtopford and India. They entered the pass this day, and Commodore Napier.
continued fighting their way to Gundamuck, 25.-President Tyler issues a proclamation
which was reached on the 3oth. They entered
the ruined fortress of Jellalabad on the 12th warning the lawless marauders, or “Hunters'
November, and commenced to repair the walls. Lodges," on the frontier line of Canada, of the
The state of the country would not permit any danger they run in the attempt to involve the two countries in hostilities. If any of the
attempt to reach Cabul with supplies. parties concerned in such proceedings fell into
- Concluded at Utica the trial of Alexander the hands of the British authorities, they would
McLeod, charged with being concerned in the not be reclaimed as American citizens, nor
destruction of the Caroline in 1837, and the would any interference be made in their behalf.
death of Dupree, an American citizen. The
apprehension of McLeod on American terri28.-The New Poor Law Commission Bill
tory had given rise to much correspondence passes into Committee; two instructions re between the two countries, and it was at one garding the separation of husband and wife, time feared it might lead to a serious embroil. and the formation of new unions, having been ment. All apprehension, however, was set at negatived by large majorities.
rest by the jury returning a verdict of acquittal 29.-The Niger Colonization Expedition on all the counts. broken up through disease and disaster.
13.-Boiler explosion at the machine works A party of about one hundred workmen of Messrs. Elce and Co., Ancoats, Manchester, left England this month to found a colony in causing the death of six workmen, the inBrazil on the system of Fourier.
jury of many others, and the destruction of a
large amount of property. October 1.-Chusan captured by the British force under Sir H. Pottinger. The loss of life
14.-At the meeting of the Norwich Branch was trifling, the steamboats moving into the
of the Society for the Propagation of the Gosimer harbour without opposition. • Arrange
pel, a band of Chartists interrupt the proments," wrote Sir Henry, next day, “will be
ceedings, and cause the chairman, Lord made immediately for establishing a provisional
Wodehouse, to leave the room. government; and her Majesty's Plenipotentiary 18.-High tide in the Thames, attended deems it advisable, after what has already with much destruction of property. At high happened, to intimate to her Majesty's sub water the depth at the entrance of St. Kathejects and all others, that under no circumstances rine's Dock was thirty-one feet. All the apwill Tinghae and its dependencies be restored proaches to the Thames police-office were cut to the Chinese Government until the whole of off, and wherries employed to convey suitors the demands of England are not only complied to and from the court. The whole of the with, but carried into full effect.” At Ningpo, lower part of Westminster was inundated. If a the Toth, the Chusan soldiers refused to Parliament had been sitting, members could face the British troops, and the city was in only have reached the House in boats; Palace. consequence quietly taken possession of by Sir yard and the adjacent streets being under water. Hugh Gough.
The floor of Westminster Hall, the Temple 2.-An insurrection in favour of the ex
gardens, and the Duke of Buccleuch's gardens, Queen Regent Christina, commenced at Pam
were all overflowed. A vitriol and naphtha peluna by General O'Donnell. On the 7th, a
manufactory in Battersea Fields suffered to the desperate attempt was made at Madrid, by con
extent of 2,0001. spirators in the interest of the Queen-mother, 21.-Destruction by fire of Derby Town. to storm the palace and get possession of the hall, erected in 1828, at a cost of 12,000l. person of the young Queen. Through the The fire was observed about two in the mornloyalty and courage of the guard the enterprise ing by a policeman on duty, and it continued was defeated, though not before the con- raging till six, in spite of great efforts. The spirators had twice forced an entry into the town records were destroyed, and various royal apartments. Don Diego Leon, one of l documents belonging to the revising barrister.
21.-Anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar. Launch of the Trafalgar man-of-war, at Woolwich, in the presence of the Queen, and an immense gathering of people. At the request of her Majesty, the vessel was christened by Lady Bridport, a niece of Lord Nelson, and the wine used was a portion of that taken from the Victory after the battle of Trafalgar. There were about 500 people on board at the time of the launch, 100 of whom had taken part in the action after which the vessel was named.
82.-Reward offered by fire-offices for the discovery of incendiaries in Warwickshire. Numerous fires about this time in Bedfordshire, Nottingham, and Yorkshire.
23.--Distress in the manufacturing districts. At a meeting held in Leeds to consider the condition of the poor, it was reported that in 4,752 families in that town, containing 19,936 individuals, 16,156 were unemployed. The average weekly income of each was 11 d., or something less than 1 d. per day..
- Lord Ellenborough having accepted the office of Governor-General of India, is succeeded at the Board of Control by Lord Fitzgerald.
25.—The surviving members of the Niger Colonizing Expedition, now nearly extirpated by fever, rescued by Captain Beecroft of the Éthiope. Captain Trotter arrived at Liverpool in the Albert on the 25th January.
26.-Sir William Macnaghten writes from Cabul to the Secretary of the Indian Government, explaining the facts connected with the rising of certain Ghilzie chiefs, who, on account of the reduction of their allowances, had taken possession of some of the passes leading to the city. “There is no enemy to oppose us," he writes, “on the open plain ; and should we hereafter be forced into hostilities, a desultory mountain warfare will doubtless be that with which we shall have to contend." He therefore recommended the organization of three infantry corps of mountaineers to take the place of an equal number of regulars.
- The London journals draw attention to serious frauds in Exchequer bills, afterwards found out to be accomplished through the connivance of Mr. Beaumont Smith, of the Comptroller's office.
27.-The American brig Creole sails from Hampton Roads for New Orleans, laden with slaves and tobacco. On the 7th November a mutiny took place on board, in the course of which the owner was killed, and the captain and officers placed in confinement. The vessel was then directed for Nassau, New Providence, where, against the protest of the American Consul, the English governor permitted all to go at liberty except those thought to be prominently concerned in the murder and mutiny. 28.-A miser, named Smith, died in his
house, Seven Dials, London, in the possession of funded, leasehold, and freehold property valued at 400,000l.
28.--Treaty concluded between Great Britain and the Shah of Persia. It provides for the admission of each other's goods and manufactures of every description, upon the payment in one sum,“ once for all," of the Customs’ duties exacted from the most favoured European nations; and the mutual cession to the subjects of either country of the privileges of the most favoured nation. Two British commercial agents are to reside in Persia, in the capital and at Tabriz, besides one at Bushire ; and commercial agents of Persia are to reside at London and Bombay.
29.-Lord Palmerston writes to Mr. Byng regarding the pronunciation of the name of his horse “Iliona," about which bets had been taken up at Newmarket. “There can be no doubt that in point of prosody the o in Iliona, or Ilione, is short. Virgil settled the question in his first Æneid, when he says :
* Præterea sceptrum, Jione, quod gesserat olim
Maxima natarum Priami."" - A mub of fanatical Orangemen attack the Dublin and Cork mail-coach, and severely mal. treat an aged gentleman, whom they took for the Roman Catholic Bishop of Cork.
30.-The Duke of Wellington declines to receive a deputation relative to the distressed operatives of Paisley. “A meeting," he writes, "to discuss their distresses is not necessary in order to draw his attention to them, and his other occupations render it necessary that he should decline to receive the deputation. He begs the deputation to observe, that he is not in the Queen's political service, that he does not fill any political office, and exercises no power or authority.”
31.--Fire at the Tower of London. About half-past 10 P.M. the sentry of the Scots Fusilier Guards, on the ramparts next to Tower-hill, observed a large body of smoke ascending as if from the centre of that part of the buildings known as the Grand Store. house and Small Armory. He sounded an alarm by discharging his musket, and the garrison immediately turned out. Unfortunately, no water could be got, and from the dryness of the place, and the quantity of timber in the building, the total destruction of the armory became inevitable. In less than a quarter of an hour after the discovery an immense body of fire was raging with uncontrolled fury. Engines soon arrived from the different metropolitan stations, but though fully manned by the Foot Guards and relays, all carefully provided, were utterly useless from want of water. Two hours elapsed before a supply could be procured; the flames in the meantime extending in the direction of the Jewel Tower on the one side, and chapel and White Tower on the other. The regalia were fortunatcly
saved, and placed in the house of the governor, 9.-Discussion in the Edinburgh Town Coun. Major Elrington, without the loss of a single cil, on the case of Butters, confectioner, Grass. jewel. At two o'clock, when the fire had market, who, at the instigation of Mr. Guthrie's reached its fiercest power, considerable alarm kirk-session, had been taken before Baillie was excited by the approach of the flames to Grieve, and fined 8s., with 21, 135. expenses, for wards a magazine attached to the armory; but keeping open his door on the Sunday, and sellat this time the tide was up, and the supply of ing sweatmeats to children in the neighbourwater so abundant, that all danger from such an hood. Being unable to pay the fine, he was explosion was soon at an end. The powder lodged in the Calton jail. The Council now reitself, to the weight of about 9,000 tons, was solved that a complete inquiry should be made got out and thrown into the moat. The fire into the case. was supposed to have been caused by the over
10.-Illness of the Queen Dowager. “The beating of a stove in the Round Table Tower.
Queen Dowager had some hours of refreshing The total loss in stores and buildings was esti
sleep in the night, but there is no alleviation mated at 200,000l.
of her Majesty's symptoms this morning." November 2.-Daniel O'Connell elected 11.-Riot at Culsalmond, on the occasion of Lord Mayor of Dublin, being the first appoint inducting Mr. Middleton as assistant minister ment of the kind under the new Municipal of the parish. An excited mob took possession Corporations Act.
of the church, and, with deafening yells, com- Serious disturbances at Cabul. Between pelled the Presbytery to retire to the manse, 200 and 300 men attack the residence of Sir and there complete the ordination. The upAlexander Burnes, and murder Sir Alexander, roar was continued till midnight; the mob bis brother Lieut. Burnes, and Lieut. Broad breaking the seats and windows of the church, foot, who was in the house at the time. “The and refreshing themselves at times with whisky immediate cause of this outbreak," writes Envoy and tobacco. Sir William Macnaghten, “in the capital was 14.-Shocking tragedy in Burnley barracks. a seditious letter addressed by Abdoollah Khan Private Morris, of the both Rifles, in a fit to several chiefs of influence at Cabul, stating of jealousy, it was supposed, murders Lieut. that it was the design of the Envoy to seize O'Grady, and a female servant employed about and send them all to London. The principal the mess-room, by stabbing them with a carvrebels met on the previous night, and, re ing knife, and then committed suicide with the lying on the inflammable feelings of the people same weapon. of Cabul, they pretended that the king had
- Died at Paris, aged 75, the Earl of Elgin, issued an order to put all infidels to death."
famous for introducing into this country the Three days afterwards the enemy obtained pos remains of ancient art known as the Elgin session of the commissariat, a success not only
Marbles. greatly elating the Affghans outside the walls, but ultimately compelling the Envoy to nego
15.-Sir Robert Sale writes from Jellalabad, tiate with Akbar Khan for evacuating the city.
explaining the impossibility of returning to
Cabul in his present position. “A regard for 4.- At the usual complimentary dinner
the honour and interests of our Government given by the Directors of the East India
compels me to adhere to my plan already Company to the departing Governor-General, formed, of putting this place into a state of Lord Ellenborough made an emphatic decla
defence, and holding it, if possible, until the ration of his intention to govern upon peace Cabul force falls back upon me, or succour principles, He abjured all thoughts of a war
arrives from Peshawur or India.” like aggressive policy, and declared his settled
- Execution of Blakesley for the murder of determination, on assuming the reins of government, to direct all the energies of his mind to
the innkeeper in Eastcheap. wards the due cultivation of the arts of peace;
17.-Attempt to fire the Horse Guards, to ernulate the munificent benevolence of the
and the barracks behind the National Gallery, Mahommedan conquerors ; and to elevate and by throwing in small hand-grenades. imaprove the condition of the generous and - Great commotion in Dublin, on the occamighty people of India.
sion of Daniel O'Connell attending the levee of 7.-The Rev. M. S. Alexander consecrated
the Lord Lieutenant. The Corporation proBishop of England and Ireland in Jerusalem by
ceeded to the castle in full state, and the new the Archbishop of Canterbury. The Queen by
Lord Mayor was favourably received. licence assigned to his jurisdiction Syria, Chal
20.-Cavanagh, the “ fasting man," dedea, Egypt, and Abyssinia, and the new
tected at Reading as an impostor, and sentenced bishopric was placed under the protection of to three months' imprisonment. England and Prussia.
23.-The Gazette announces the brevet pro. 9,--This morning, at twelve minutes before motions consequent upon the birth of the Prince eleven o'clock, the Queen was safely delivered of 1 of Wales. a son-the Prince of Wales. The event was - Commission gazetted for inquiring into made known by the firing of the Park and the best mode of promoting the Fine Arts in Tower guns
the United Kingdom.
28.--The Rev.W. Whewell, B.D., appointed Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, in room of Dr. Christopiier Wordsworth, resigned.
24.-General Elphinstone writes to Envoy Macnaghten:.“ After having held our position here for upwards of three weeks in a state of siege, from the want of provisions and forage, the reduced state of our troops, the large number of wounded and sick, the difficulty of defending the extensive and ill-situated cantonment we occupy, the near approach of winter, our communications cut off, no prospects of relief, and the whole country in arms against us, I am of opinion that it is not feasible any longer to maintain our position in this country, and that you ought to avail yourself of the offer to negotiate which has been made to you."
25.-Died suddenly at his residence, Pimlico, from spasm of the heart, Sir Francis Chantrey, R. A., sculptor. The greater part of his valuable collection of paintings and sculpture was bequeathed to the nation, subject to the condition of providing a suitable building in which to place them.
December 1.-Meeting called by the Lord Provost in the Glasgow Royal Exchange, to devise means for relieving the distress in Paisley. It appeared that there were not fewer than 14,000 people in the town and neighbourhood in absolute want.
Died, aged 65, Dr. G. Birkbeck, founder of Mechanics' Institutes.
3.–The Governor-General of India, having received information of events in Cabul to the 9th November, and Jellalabad to the 15th, writes to General Sir Jasper Nicolls: “It would be vain to speculate upon the issue of the contest at Cabul; but in the extreme event of the military possession of that city, and the surrounding territory, having been entirely lost, it is not our intention to direct new and extensive operations for the re-establishment of our supremacy throughout Affghanistan. We can scarcely contemplate, in such case, that there will be any circumstances or political objects of sufficient weight to induce us to desire to retain possession of the remainder of that country; and, unless such shall be obvious as arising from the course of events, we should wish our military and political officers so to shape their proceedings as will best promote the end of retiring with the least possible discredit.” Two days later the Governor-General writes to Sir William Macnaghten at Cabul : “So serious appear to be the difficulties which are to be encountered at Cabul, amid a hostile population, by a force cut off for several months from support by the impassable state of the roads in the winter season, that the GovernorGeneral in Council has felt compelled to take into his contemplation the possible occurrence of still more serious disaster to our troops there, and to provide even for the contingency of our political influence in that quarter being for a
time entirely subverted; and the first duty of Government in issuing instructions suitable to such an event having been discharged, I am now directed to assure you that the Governor. General in Council will remain anxiously mind. ful of your position, and that every measure will be adopted, as the tenor of the information re. ceived may show to be necessary, of which the season will admit, and which may be otherwise practicable, for affording relief to yourself and to the troops by whom you are accompanied. We have only for the present to trust to an overruling Providence, and to the energy and perseverance of our gallant troops, for the maintenance of the power and safety of our arms."
4.–Tried at the Central Criminal Court, Edward Beaumont Smith, charged with forging and uttering fraudulent Exchequer Bills to an immense amount. He pleaded guilty, and read a statement, explanatory of the gradual manner in which his necessities led him to commit the crimes with which he stood charged. “Whatever speculation,” he said, “may have been carried on by those who have used these bills, no profit ever reached me, or ever was intended to do so. Year after year bills have been wrung from me, under pretence of redeeming and cancelling those outstanding, in order to prevent discovery, and afterwards by the repeated misapplication of them the necessity was created for more, to accomplish the original purpose; and thus the frightful crime which has taken place was occasioned.” A subsequent statement was to the effect that no person of rank or public character was in any way mixed up in the transaction, the sole parties being himself, Solari, Rassallo, and another whose office was in Basinghall-street, where they used to arrange their plans. He believed the total amount fabricated to be about 340,000l., the whole of which was wasted in gambling transactions on the Stock Exchange. Sen. tenced to transportation for life.
9.—Sir William Macnaghten writes from Cabul to the Hon. Mr. Erskine, Bombay : “We have now been besieged thirty-eight days by a contemptible enemy, whom the cowardice of our troops, and certain other circumstances which I will not mention, have emboldened to assume an attitude of superiority. Our provi. sions will be out in two or three days more, and the military authorities have strongly urged me to capitulate. This I will not do till the last moment. We have rumours that a force is coming to our assistance from Candahar; and I sincerely trust it may, for we liave no energy or spirit among those here.”
Died at Stuttgard, John Heinrich Dan. necker, sculptor, and friend of Schiller.
10.--A Commercial Convention of the Midland Counties met at Derby to consider the grievances under which the various manufacturing interests are placed by the restrictive policy of the Government. Resolutions approv. ing of a relaxation of the tariff and the entire abolition of the Corn Laws were carried with