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of allegiance and supremacy, kneeling before
the throne. The former surrendered their seals June 20.-Accession of Queen Victoria. On of office, which her Majesty returned, and Tuesday morning, shortly after 2 o'clock, the Ministers kissed hands on re-appointment. A Archbishop of Canterbury and the Lord Cham- declaration was drawn up, and signed by all berlain (Marquis of Conyngham) left Windsor present, stating that, "Whereas it has pleased for Kensington Palace—where the Princess Almighty God to call to His mercy our late Victoria was residing with her mother—to in- Sovereign Lord King William the Fourth, of form her Royal Highness of the King's death. blessed and glorious memory, by whose decease The details of the interview current in society the imperial crown of the United Kingdom of at the time were thus set down by Miss Wynn : Great Britain and Ireland is solely and right“They reached Kensington Palace at about fully come to the High and Mighty Princess 5: they knocked, they rang, they thumped for a Alexandrina Victoria, saving the rights of any considerable time before they could rouse the issue of his late Majesty King William the porter at the ga:e; they were again kept wait- Fourth which may be born of his late Majesty's ing in the courtyard, then turned into one of consort : we, therefore, the Lords Spiritual and the lower rooms, where they seemed forgotten Temporal of this realm, being here assisted by everybody. They rang the bell, and de- with those of his late Majesty's Privy Council, sired that the attendant of the Princess Victoria. with numbers of others, principally gentlemen might be sent to inform her Royal Highness of quality, with the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, that they requested an audience on business of and citizens of London, do now hereby, with importance. After another delay, and another one voice and consent of tongue and heart, ringing to inquire the cause, the attendant was publish and proclaim that the High and Mighty summoned, who stated that the Princess was Princess Alexandrina Victoria is now, by the in such a sweet sleep she could not venture to death of our late Sovereign of happy memory, disturb her. Then they said, “We are come become our only lawful and rightful liege, to the Queen on business of state, and even her Lady Victoria, by the grace of God, Queen of sleep must give way to that!' It did; and to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and prove that she did not keep them waiting, in Ireland, Defender of the Faith, saving as a few minutes she came into the room in a aforesaid. To whom, saving as aforesaid, we do loose white nightgown and shawl, her night- acknowledge all faith and constant obedience, cap thrown off, and her hair falling upon her with all hearty and humble affection ; beseechshoulders, her feet in slippers, tears in her ing God, by whom kings and queens do ges, but perfectly collected and dignified.” reign, to bless the Royal Princess Victoria with Lord Melbourne was immediately sent for, long and happy years to reign over us.”. Her and the Privy Council summoned to assemble Majesty was pleased to make the following a Kensington at 11 o'clock. At that hour the declaration :-"" The severe and afflicting loss Queen, with the Duchess of Kent, entered the which the nation has sustained by the death of council chamber, attended by her officers of his Majesty my beloved uncle, has devolved state, and took her seat on a throne erected for upon me the duty of administering the govern. the occasion. The Lord Chancellor then ad- ment of this empire. This awful responsibility ministered to her the usual oaths, binding is imposed upon me so suddenly, and at so her to govern the kingdom according to its early a period of my life, that I should feel laws and customs. She thereafter received the myself utterly oppressed by the burden were I homage of her uncles, the Dukes of Cum- not sustained by the hope that Divine Provi. berland and Sussex, the Queen with admirable dence, which has called me to this work, will grace standing up and preventing the latter give me strength for the performance of it, and from kneeling. The Cabinet Ministers and that I shall find in the purity of my intentions, other privy councillors present took the oath and in my zeal for the public welfare, that
support and those resources which usually belong to a more mature age and to longer experience. I place my firm reliance upon the wisdom of Parliament, and upon the loyalty and affection of my people. I esteem it also a peculiar advantage that I succeed to a sovereign whose constant regard for the rights and liberties of his subjects, and whose desire to promote the amelioration of the laws and institutions of the country, have rendered his name the object of general attachment and veneration. Educated in England, under the tender and enlightened care of a most affectionate mother, I have learned from my infancy to respect and love the constitution of my native country. It will be my unceasing study to maintain the Reformed religion as by law established, securing at the same time to all the sull enjoyment of religious liberty; and I shall steadily protect the rights, and promote to the utmost of my power the happiness and welfare, of ail classes of my subjects." Her Majesty was also pleased to take and subscribe the oath relating to the security of the Church of Scotland. The Queenstyled herself simply “Victoria,” and not, as had been anticipated, “ Alexandrina Victoria," a variation which led next day to certain alterations in the written rolls of the House of Lords and the printed form of oath used by members of the House of Commons.
81.--Proclamation of the Qucen. Her Majesty left Kensington between 9 and 10 A. M. for St. James's Palace, where she was received by members of the Royal family, Cabinet Ministers, and officers of the household. In a short time she made her appearance at the window of an aute-room adjoining the audience chamber, and was received with deafening cheers. Her Majesty was observed to look fatigued and pale, but acknowledged the cheers which greeted her with ease and dignity. She was dressed in deep mourning, with white tippet, white cuffs, and a border of white lace uler a small black bonnet, which was placed far back on her head, exhibiting her fair hair in front, parted over the forehead. Her Majesty was accompanied to the window by Lord Mel. bourne, Prime Minister, and Lord Lansdowne, President of the Council. In the courtyard beneath the window of the presence chamber was Garter King-at-arms, with heralds, pursuivants, and other officials in their robes of state. The proclamation read was uniform in phraseology with the declaration signed at yesterday's Privy Council. When Garter King-at-arms had ceased reading, the band played the National Anthem, and the Park and Tower guns pealed out a jubilant chorus. The City dignitaries then formed :hemselves into order of procession, and marched off to proclaim the Queen at various points within their jurisdiction.
22.-A royal message laid on the table of buth Houses of Parliament, stating that it was inexpedient, in the judgment of her Majesty, that any new measure should be recommended
for their adoption beyond such as might be requisite for carrying on the public service from the close of the present session to the meeting of the new Parliament. The debate which ensued was characterised by an entire unanimity as to the merits of the late King, though there was a wide difference of opinion regarding the policy of Ministers. When the Commons rose to-day, 521 members had taken the oath of allegiance to the Queen.
23.-At the close of a discussion to-night on the orier of public business, Lord Lyndhurst took occasion to censure Ministers for their care lessness and incapacity. “During a session," he said, “which wanted only a few days of five months' duration, only two Acts of distinct and special legislation had been passed—the PostOffice Contracts and the Scottish Sedition Bills -while there was at the present date no fewer than seventy-five public bills depending in the other House. So far as the foreign policy of Ministers was concerned, it elicited the pity of their friends and excited the scorn and derision of their eneniies.”- Lord Melbourne endeavoured to defend his Ministry from what he described as “the bitter and vehement" attack of the learned ex-Chancellor. - In the Commons, Lord John Russell, when speaking of the Reform Act, said, “Her Majesty's Ministers, while they consider it a final measure (see July 3d, 1849), do not intend that it should remain a barren Act upon the Statute-book, but that it should be followed up in such a manner as would ennoble, invigorate, and enlarge the institutions of the country.'
24.-Explosion at the Blaina Iron Works, Monmouthshire, resulting in the death of twelve workmen, about a third of the entire number employed in the workings.
The calamity was thought to have been occasioned by one of the labourers venturing into an unsafe passage with a lighted candle.
Mr. Montefiore (afterwards Sir Moses) chosen Sheriff of London ; the first Jew elected to that office in England.
27.-Lord Langdale, Master of the Rolls, makes a decree on an information by the Attorney-General against the University and Corporation of Cambridge and others, relative to the mismanagement of Hobson's Workhouse and the misappropriation of the funds, especially of the sum bequeathed by John Bowtell for apprenticing poor boys. His lordship declared that the purposes for which the workhouse was used ought not to be continued, and that certain salaries which had been paid ought to cease. He referred it to the Master to take into account and settle a scheme for the future management of the charity.
Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, and since the death of William IV. King of Hanover, enters his kingdom. He was favourably received by the people.
29.-The Times, looked upon as the organ of the Tory party, writes with great bitterness
against Ministers :-“It will be observed that the anticipations of certain Irish Roman Catholics respecting the success of their warfare against the Protestant Church and State, under the auspices of these not untried Ministers, into whose hands the all but infant and helpless Queen has been compelled by her unhappy condition to deliver up herself and her indignant people, are to be taken for nothing and as worth nothing but the chimeras of a band of visionary traitors. When they boast that her Majesty will in the end turn Papist, or that she will marry a Papist, or in any manner follow the footsteps of the Coburg family, whom these incendiaries describe as Papists, it is clear enough that the circulators of such insane slanders have carefully concealed from the dupes who listen to them that the legal consequence of such lapse into Popery would be an immediate forfeiture of the British Crown.”
80.-Forty bills, public and private, received her Majesty's royal assent to-day, being the first passed in her reign. The ceremony led to some trifling mistakes in consequence of the officials of the House having been so long, accustomed to say "his Majesty” and “ le Roi le veut.”
The Budget introduced to the House of Commons by the Hon. Spring Rice, Chancellor of the Éxchequer. The gross income for the ensuing year he estimated at 47,240,000l. and the expenditure at 46,631,4151. The Customs he considered_likely to produce 21,100,0001., and the Excise 13,8000,000l. The amount of tea cleared for home consumptinn in 1836 was 49,844,000 lbs, and the duty 3,886,0001.
- Pillory abolished by statule.
Considerable political excitement through out the country during the past ten days consequent upon the preparations for a general election to the first Parliament of the young Queen. Lord John Russell writes to the clectors of Stroud : "I have endeavoured to strengthen our institutions by reforming them; to obtain complete and full liberty for every religious opinion; to give to Ireland the franchises of Great Britain. But in so doing, I have been cautious not so to innovate as to admit any principle by which our ancient institutions might themselves be endangered ; not so to define religious liberty as to weaken the Established Church; not so to provide for the wants and wishes of the people of Ireland as to break or disturb the unity of the Empire. In this spirit I must always oppose any propostion for the adoption of an elective House of lords, or of the voluntary principle in religion.” To the electors of Tamworth, Sir Robert Peel wrote: “In cordial concurrence with that powerful Conservative party with which am proud to boast of my connexion, looking rather to the defence of great principles than to the mere temporary interests of party, I have given a zealous support to a weak and
inefficient Government, whenever it has of. fered an opposition, however lukewarm and hesitating, to projects of further change in the system of representation or in the balance of the constituted authorities of the State." Sir F. Burdett retired from Westminster at this time in favour of Sir George Murray, Tory, and mention is made that Maidstone was to be contested by Mr. Disraeli, the younger.
July 3.-A Bill for carrying on the government of the country in case of a demise of the Crown when the next heir was not in England, read a second time in the House of Lords. It provided that the great officers of state, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Chief Justice of the King's Bench, and an indefinite number of persons to be named by the heir-presumptive, should carry on the government in the cvent of the Queen's death.
4.-Grand Junction Railway, from Liverpool to Birmingham, opened.
5.—The King of Hanover issues a proclamation calling in question the Constitution of 1833. The Constitution, he affirmed, was neither in form or substance binding on him, and he was not satisfied that it gave any guarantee for the permanent prosperity of his subjects. Writing to the Duke of Buckingham, he says: “I had a most difficult card to play, and until I could see my way plainly I could not act true to my principles. .. Radicalism has been here all the order of the day, and all the lower class appointed to office were more or less imbued with these laudable principles. . . But I have cut the wings of this democracy.”
8.—The Earl of Durham having been consulted by the Reformers of his own county on the approaching elections, writes to Mr. Russell Bowlby : “I wish to rally as large a portion of the British people as possible around the existing institutions of the country—the Throne, Lords, Commons, and the Established Church. I do not wish to make new institutions, but to preserve and strengthen the old. . i . It has been my ruling principle throughout my political life to endeavour to bring all classesespecially the middle and lower—within the pale of the true, not the spurious, constitution. I have ever wished to give the latter an interest in the preservation of privileges which exclusion would render obnoxious to them; to make them feel that whilst the Crown enjoyed its prerogatives, and the upper classes their honours, they also were invested with privileges most valuable to them; and, moreover, that all, separately and collectively, rested on the common basis of national utility.” Durham Ministry was spoken of at this time, and several candidates for the new Parliament avowed themselves to be supporters of his lordship’s policy.
The late King William IV. buried this
Chapel of St. George, Windsor. Chief mourner, the Duke of Sussex. The Dowager-Queen Adelaide was present in the royal closet.
13.-Her Majesty and the Duchess of Kent leave Kensington, and take up their residence in Buckingham Palace.
14.-The Peers refuse permission to the Duke of Sussex to present Quaker petition against capital punishment, on the plea that their lordships were described as “Peers of the United Kingdom, ," instead of “Lords Spiritual and Temporal.”
- The fourth centenary of the invention of printing celebrated by a festival at Mayence, extensling over three days. Thorwaldsen's statue of Guttenberg was unveiled with great ceremony on the occasion.
A banquet at Edinburgh, in honour of the event, was presided over by the poet Campbell.
15.-The forces of the Queen of Spain encounter the Carlists near Valencia, and gain an important victory. Don Carlos, who had ventured incautiously near the city walls, retired to the village of Brunol, and latterly to the mountains.
17.-Parliament prorogued by the Queen in person. The Royal Speech for the occasion was prepared with unusual care, and delivered in a style which disarmed criticism. “It will be my care,” her Majesty said, “to strengthen our institutions, civil and ecclesiastical, by discreet improvement wherever improvement is required, and to do all in my power to compose and allay animosity and discord.” The Queen read the Speech deliberately, with a small but sweet voice heard over all the House. Her demeanour was described at the time as being characterised by a natural grace and modest self-possession. This being the first visit of the Queen to Parliament, an unusual amount of enthusiasm was shown. Every spot from which a view of the pageant could be obtained was densely crowded, and deafening cheers greeted the youthful sovereign at every step. Her Majesty was dressed in a white satin robe, decorated with jewels and gold, the Garter on her arm, and a mantle of crimson velvet over her shoulders. In the Gazette of the same evening appeared a proclamation dissolving this Parliament (the third of William IV.). Writs for the election of members to serve in the new House were despatched the same evening. They were made returnable on the uth September
18.-A letter designed, it was said, to influence the Irish elections, sent by Lord John Russell to the Earl of Mulgrave, expressing “her Majesty's entire approbation of your past conduct, and her desire that you should continue to be guided by the same principles on which you have hitherto acted. The Queen willingly recognises in her Irish subjects a spirit of loyalty and devotion towards her person and government. Her Majesty is desirous to see
them in the full enjoyment of that civii and political equality to which, by recent statute, they are fully entitled ; and her Majesty is persuaded that when invidious distinctions are altogether obliterated, her throne will be still more secure and her people more truly united.”
18.—The Marquis and Marchioness of Londonderry urge their Durham tenantry to vote for the Conservative candidate (H. T. Liddell) at the ensuing election. “ We assure all those who answer to the solemn appeal that we make to them—who step forward with heart and soul in the Conservative cause to rescue the country from Radical domination—that the sense of the obligation to us personally will be for ever registered in our memories; and that the grati. tude of ourselves and our family, to those who live around us and upon our property, will be in proportion to this important demand we make upon them to prove their fidelity and their attachment to our sentiments and confidence in our opinions. We send these our recommendations to our esteemed friend, the Honourable Henry Liddell, to make every use of he shall think fit; and we have begged him especially to report to us those who answer zealously our call, and those who are unmindful and indifferent to our earnest wishes. (Signed) VANE LONDONDERRY; FRANCES ANN VANE LONDONDERRY.”
24.-An extraordinary and fatal parachute descent was made by Robert Cocking, painter, from Mr. Green's balloon, which rose in Vauxhall Gardens about 8 o'clock. Over Kennington Common Mr. Green said the balloon was stationary for a time, and Cocking, then swinging in his basket below, wished to know their altitude. “About 1,000 feet," Mr. Green replied. “Very well; let me know when we arrive at about 1,500 feet, and at every additional 500 feet, until we arrive at 5,000 feet, for that is the altitude at which I wish to descend." This was done, and the parachute severed, when the balloon shot up with the velocity of a rocket. The parachute, unable to resist the pressure of the atmosphere, col. lapsed round the poor inventor, and came thundering to the earth. The fall was seen by several people in the neighbourhood of Nor. wood.
The unfortunate man died almost instantly from the injuries he received on reaching the ground. Mr. Green and a companion made a descent at Maidstone about 9 o'clock.
85.-First experiment with the electric telegraph between Euston Square and Camden Town stations, the North-Western Company having sanctioned the laying down of wires between those places immediately upon the taking out of the patent by Messrs. "Wheat. stone and Cook. Besides these two operators, Mr. Fox and Mr. R. Stephenson were present to witness the infant triumphs of this wonderful invention.
87.-At an election dinner at Stroud, Lord John Russell thus referred to the term “Con. servative," which the Tories were now using in