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2.--Came on for trial in the Court of Exchequer the Excise case, Regina v. Smith, in which the defendant, an extensive distiller in Whitechapel, was charged with making use of a concealed pipe for the conveyance of spirits between the distillery and the rectifying house. After a trial of eight days the jury found for the Crown, but expressed an opinion that no evidence had been adduced to show that the pipe referred to, and the existence of which could not be denied, had been fraudulently used by the defendant. The case was ultimately compromised, the Government accepting 10,0001, and an obligation that the premises would be instantly altered in accordance with the Excise requirements.
- Yarmouth Suspension Bridge gives way under the pressure of a crowd congregated to see a professional clown drawn down the river in a tub by four geese. Daring efforts were made by spectators of every rank to bring sufferers ashore, but the calamity was so unlooked-for and overwhelming in its magnitude, that on reckoning the loss the fearful total amounted to seventy-nine, mostly women and children, either drowned in the river or dead from injuries received by falling balustrades. At the inquiry following the calamity, Mr. Walker, engineer, who had been sent down by the Home Office, stated that the suspending chains were of bad construction, imperfectly welded, and of an inferior quality of iron. It was also ascertained that the bridge had been widened without any increase of the suspending power. Referring to the observation that as many people had frequently been on the bridge before, he said : “When a bridge has been frequently loaded to the utmost which it will bear, it becomes weaker and weaker each time, and it may ultimately give way, although at first it was sufficiently strong to resist the weight put upon it." The engineer, Mr. Brunel, thus calculated the strength : the section of the chain at the centre of the span is 296 square inches; a square inch of iron breaks with 27 or 29 tons, but 174 tons is taken as the impairing weight, i.e. the weight at which it begins to stretch. There is therefore for the weight the bridge will actually bear, 296 x 174 tons = 5180 tons, while 296 x 5 tons = 1480 tons is the greatest load that can be put upon it, being 100 lbs. per square foot, for a crowd standing close together.
3.-Died at St. John's Wood, London, aged 47, Thomas Hood, who " sang the Song of the Shirt."
5.-The elevation of Mr. W. F. Mackenzie to the office of a Lord of the Treasury having excited considerable discussion from its coincidence with a change of vote on the Maynooth question, he this day made the following explanation on the hustings at Peebles when seeking re-election : “I always voted against the small grant because I thought it was too small---(great laughter, hissing, and hooting)-but I over and over again declared, and my
friends knew my opinion, that is a larger grant had been proposed I would have voted for it. (Cries of "Oh !" and laughter.) I assure you it is true. I voted against the small grant be. cause I thought it did mischief. I voted for the larger grant, not because I was certain it would do better, but because I thought the experiment ought to be tried."
7.- The Court of Directors issue instructions to the Governor-General of India regarding the principles which would guide them in the .construction of railways there, applications for making which on an extensive scale had been received from private parties. They conceivel that “remuneration for railroads in India must for the present be drawn chiefly from the conveyance of merchandise, and not from passengers. It cannot admit of question, that wherever railroad communication can be advantageously introduced and maintained, it is eminently deserving of encouragement and co-operation from the Government." The peculiar difficulties to which the Court drew the attention of the Governor-General were,-periodical rains and inundations; the action of violent winds and the influence of a vertical sun ; the ravages of insects and vermin ; the destructive effects of spontaneous vegetation ; the unprotected state of the country through which the railway would pass; and the difficulty and expense of securing the services of competent and trustworthy engineers. The Court proposed to depuie to India three skilful engineers to suggest some feasible line of moderate length as an experi. ment for railroad communication in India.
- The French Chamber of Deputies, by a majority of 227 to 144, carry a vote of 14,130,000 francs for the fortifications of Paris.
8.-Opening of the Free-trade Bazaar in Covent Garden Theatre. The whole area of the pit and stage was boarded over and trans. formed into a “Norman Gothic Hall,” filled to overflowing with the products of manufacturing industry. The grandeur of the exhibition and the excellence of the arrangements were universally admitted. About 100,000 people visited the bazaar during the seventeen days it was open, and the large sum of 25,0461. was added to the funds of the League. The stalls were attended to by 400 ladies, the wives and daughters of leading Free-traders.
9.-Sir James Graham introduces the Government bill to endow three new colleges in Ireland for the advancement of learning. At a meeting of prelates in Dublin, a resolution was adopted expressive of thankfulness for the kind and generous intention of the Government to extend the benefits of academical education.
- In the United Secession Synod, Edinburgh, Dr. Heugh's motion, declining to open up the Atonement controversy again, was carried by 243 against 118 who voted for Dr. Hay's amendment, asking discussion on the ground that recent decisions in the Synod had given rise to much dissatisfaction and dissension
12.-Died, aged 78, Professor Augustus series of nine resolutions relating to the conWilliam Von Schlegel, Gerinan critic, poet, dition of the labouring classes in so far as they and philologist.
were affected by protective duties, the law of 18.-Died at Contin, Ross-shire, in his 65th
settlement, and emigration. They were nega.
tived on the 28th (the Derby day), when the year, William Laidlaw, author of “Lucy's
number requisite to make a House could with Flitting." He was for many years the friend and steward of Sir Walter Scott at Abbots
difficulty be kept together.
28.-At the evening sederunt of the Free - Don Carlos renounces his claim to the
| Assembly, Dr. Chalmers introduces MM. D'Authrone of Spain in favour of his son, the
bigné of Geneva, Monod of Paris, and Kuntze of l'rince of the Asturias.
Berlin, as a deputation from foreign Churches.
- The old part of the city of Quebec almost 20.-Fatal duel on the shore near Gosport
entirely destroyed by fire. Between 1,500 and between Mr. Seaton, late of the nith Hussars,
2,000 dwellings were consumed. and from and Lieut. Hawkey, of the Royal Marines.
10,000 to 12,000 people rendered homeless. They had quarrelled and insulted each other
One of the most painful incidents was the de. at an entertainment in the King's Rooms,
struction of the hospital, to which, as being Southsea Reach, some days before. They
considered entirely out of the reach of the confired at fifteen paces ; in the second round
flagration, numbers of sick persons of all classes Mr. Seaton fell, mortally wounded in the ab
were carried. The building became ignited by domen. Lieut. Hawkey instantly fled with his
the flakes of fire carried by the wind, and many second.
of the unfortunate inmates, unable to help them21.–The Maynooth Bill read a third time in selves, perished in the burning pile. On the the House of Commons. The debate was Ist of July following the remaining portion of protracted, but dull.
the city suffered severely from a similar visita. - In reply to an address from the Corpora tion: 1,300 houses were then destroyed, and tion of Dublin, the Queen said : “Whenever I 13 blown down to arrest the progress of the may be enabled to receive in Ireland the pro
flames. mised welcome, I shall rely with confidence 29.-A new Convention between Great on the loyalty and affection of my faithful Britain and France for the suppression of the subjects.”
slave-trade signed at London. 26.—Sir John Franklin sails from Sheerness 30.-Mr. O'Connell and the other traversers with the ships Erebus and Terror on his last hold a levee in the Rotunda, when numerous Arctic Exploring Expedition. He passed his addresses from corporations and societies are first winter in a harbour at the entrance of presented. At the conclusion the Liberator and Wellington Channel, after which date no letters his friends were drawn in a triumphal car were received from Sir John, his officers, or through the streets. crew. His official instructions were: “To
31.--- Railway opened between Peterborough push to the westward without loss of time in
and Northampton. the latitude of about 745°, till you have reached the longitude of that portion of land on which Cape Walker is situated, or about 98° west.
June 2.-The second reading of the May. From that point we desire that every effort be
nooth Bill moved in the House of Lords by the
Duke of Wellington. He was interrupted at used to endeavour to penetrate to the southward and westward, in a course as direct to
the outset of his speech by the Duke of Newwards Behring's Straits as the position and
castle, who wished to know whether the Queen extent of the ice, or the existence of land at
had granted permission to propose such a bill, present unknown, may admit. We direct you to
a question which Lord Brougham sharply rethis particular part of the Polar Sea as affording
buked as the most unconstitutional he had ever the best prospect of accomplishing the passage
heard proposed in Parliament. - The Earl of to the Pacific.”
Roden moved for an inquiry into the teaching
at Maynooth, and alluded with sorrow to the -- Fire in Raggett's Hotel, Dover-street,
insult' threatened by Repealers to “The Piccadilly. It broke out about midnight, and
Glorious and Immortal Memory," in so far as consumed nearly the whole building. The
they intended to hold one of their monster house being unusually full, the greatest con
meetings on the banks of the Boyne on the ist fusion ensued when the inmates suddenly found July. "The Protestants of Ireland consider the flames filling the passages and staircases.
they have been betrayed, and they are now Mrs. Round, the wife of the member for
thinking how they may best secure the safety Maldon, Mr. Raggett sen., the proprietor,
of their families, their children, their altars, Miss Raggett, and a nurse in the service of
and their homes. He would tell her Majesty's the Earl of liuntingdon, were either suffocated
Government that their best and warmest friends, in their rooms or killed by throwing themselves
the Protestants of Ireland, who had stood by from windows. Much valuable property in
them in many a difficulty, were disgusted with jewellery and furniture was destroyed.
their conduct." The motion for a second read- Lord John Russell brings forward a ing was supported by the Archbishop of Dublin
and the Bishop of St. David's, and opposed by the Bishop of London and the Bishop of Cashel. On a division, Lord Roden's amendment was rejected by 155 to 59 votes.
8.-The Irish Colleges Bill read a second time in the House of Commons. (See May 9.)
- The stewards of the Jockey Club expel William Day, Bloodsworth, and Stebbings, for conspiring to injure Mr. Gully's horse, Old England, in the race for the Derby. On the 18th another case of fraud was established against John Day junior, in connexion with the running of the Melody colt for the Derby of 1840.
3.-On the motion of Mr. Hume, the Premier consents to bring the meritorious services of Sir H. Pottinger under the notice of the Crown. A pension of 1,5001. was voted later in the session.
4.-Mexico declares war against the United States on the Texas question.
- Thomas Steele, O'Connell's Head Pacificator, and Head Repeal Warden for Ireland, issues a proclamation denouncing the Molly Maguires of Leitrim and Cavan for rejecting "the gentle and balmy counsel of your country's almost sanctified benefactor and father, and the solemn adjuration of the clergy from their altars. You outcast traitors,” he concludes, “who give strength to Ireland's enemies, your country disclaims you-I abhor you !”.
6. Fancy dress ball at Buckingham Palace, illustrating the period of 1740-50.
8.-O'Connell, after a series of ovations commencing at Dublin, enters Cork in state in his triumphal car. The next most prominent object in the procession was a venerable minstrel sitting under the shade of an ivied branching oak, playing the harp which had been used before the Liberator at Tara, on the memorable 15th of August, 1843. On the same car were an Irish chieftain, two Irish knights with pages, and four members of the Repeal Committee.
- Died, aged 78, Andrew Jackson, President of the United States from 1829 to 1837.
9.-Lord Stanley obtains leave to introduce a bill into the Upper House providing for compensation in certain cases to tenants of land in Ireland.
10.-Mr. Villiers' annual motion on the Com Laws defeated by a majority of 254 to 122.
16.–The Maynooth Endowment Bill passes the House of Lords, the majority for the third reading being 131.
17.--Died, aged 67, the Rev. R. H. Barham, better known in the literary world as “ Thomas Ingoldsby,” author of "Ingoldsby Legends."
18.-After an interval of some weeks, the Anti-Com-Law Leaguers resume their weekly meetings. It was reported that the sum raised during the past year, including the returns from the Lazaar, amounted to 116,6871.
18.—Mr. Charles Buller's motion, that the House resolve itself into a committee to consider the state of the colony of New Zealand and the case of the New Zealand Company, negatived by 223 to 172 votes. The debate was protracted over three nights, and assumed the form of a review of the entire colonial policy of Ministers.
19.-Horrible outrage in Algeria on a body of Arabs by French troops. The Ouled Riahs, finding themselves closely pursued by the troops under Colonels Pélissier, St. Arnaud, and De l’Admirault, took refuge in one of the caverns with which their country abounds. After surrounding the cavern, a few faggots were lighted and thrown before the entrance, to convince the Arabs that the French had the power, if they pleased, of suffocating them in their hiding-place. The Colonel then threw in letters offering to them life and liberty if they would surrender their arms and their horses. At first they refused, but subsequently replied that they would consent if the French troops were withdrawn. This condition was considered inadmissible, and more burning faggots were thrown in. A great tumult now began, apd it was known afterwards that it arose from a discussion as to whether there should be a surrender or not. The party opposed to a surrender carried their point, but a few of the minority made their escape. Col. Pélissier, wishing to spare the lives of ihose who remained in the cavern, sent Arabs to exhort them to surrender. They still refused, and certain women, who did not partake of the savage fanaticism of the majority, attempted to fly, but their husbands and relations fired upon them, to prevent any escaping from the martyrdom which they had themselves resolved to suffer. Colonel Pélissier then suspended the throwing of the burning faggots, and sent a French officer to hold a parley with the Ouled Riahs, but his messenger was received with a discharge of fire-arms, and could not perform his mission. This state of things continued till the night of the 19th, when losing all patience, and no longer having a hope of otherwise subduing these fanatics, who formed, it was said, a perpetual nucleus of revolt in the country, the fire was rendered more intense than it had yet been. During this time the cries of the unhappy wretches who were being suffocated were dreadful, but gradually nothing was heard beyond the crackling of faggots. The troops entered, and found 500 dead bodies. About 150, who still breathed, were brought into the fresh air, but a number of them died asterwards.
20.-In the Court of Exchequer Mr. Wakley, M.P., obtains a verdict of 1501. damages against the proprietor of the Medical Times for a libel charging him with ruining various medical associations, by taking them under his protection,
- Discussion in the House of Conimons on the railway gauge question arising on a mo
tion for the further consideration of the Oxford, history of chivalry not to understand what was Worcester, and Wolverhampton Railway Bill — meant in the demand to "justify" the exa line proposed by the Great Western Company pressions. Mr. Roebuck, in reply, hoped the with a broad gauge against another promoted member for Sligo was sufficiently learned in by the London and Birmingham Company with the old laws of the country to be aware of the a narrow gauge. The Board of Trade re position in which he had placed himself. The ported in favour of the latter, the Select Com. challenge was brought under the notice of the inittee of the House in favour of the former. House to-night, when Mr. Somers withdrew Mr. Cobden's motion for a Commission to his note and apologised for its terms. inquire into and secure uniformity of gauge was 28.--Died in Cumberland-terrace, Regent's defeated by 247 to 184 votes, Sir R. Peel and Mr.
Park, aged 47, Sir William Follett, AttorneyLabouchere deprecating interference with the
General to her Majesty. This eminent pleader decision of the committee as detrimental to the
was buried with much solemnity in the Temple authority of the House. A Commission under church, the procession being composed of Letters Patent was issued on the 5th July, em
Benchers of the Inner and Middle Temple, of powered to inquire whether uniformity of gauge
Lincoln's Inn, and Gray's Inn, with many of was expedient or practicable. The commis.
the judges and other dignitaries. sioners were Sir J. M. F. Small, R. E., G. B. Airy, Greenwich Observatory, and
30.-In the Arches Court, Sir Herbert Professor Barlow, of Woolwich Military Aca
Jenner Fust gives judgment in the suit prodemy.
moted by the Bishop of London against the
Rev. F. 'Oakeley, of Margaret Chapel. The 23.-Grand naval review at Spithead, in ljudge elaborately analysed Mr. Oakeley's letter presence of the Queen, Prince Albert, the
to the Bishop, in which he claimed to hold Lords of the Admiralty, and other distin. the same principles as Mr. Ward, and chalguished visitors. Her Majesty arrived at the lenged him to institute proceedings. The profleet on the 21st, and was received on board moters of the suit, said Sir Herbert, have sufthe flag-ship St. Vincent, by Rear-Admiral ficiently proved their case that Mr. Oakeley had Hyde Parker and Captain Rowley. The royal rendered himself liable to ecclesiastical censure. party afterwards visited the Trafalgar and If the proceeding had been under the statute Albion. To-day, on the royal yacht reaching of Elizabeth he must, in the first instance, have Spithead, the yards were manned, and a general been called upon to retract his error, and if salute fired from all the ships of the fleet. It he refused be deprived of his preferment; but, was remarked that at no time since the peace as the proceeding was under the general law, of 1815 had the roadstead exhibited so great an the punishment was left to the discretion of the amount of actual naval strength. A variety of Court. The Court now revoked Mr. Oakeley's evolutions having been gone through by each of licence, prohibited him from preaching within the divisions, the day's display was concluded the province of Canterbury till he retracted his by the passage of her Majesty through the errors, and condemned him in the cost of pro• squadron on her return to Cowes.
ceedings. - In the Court of Queen's Bench, Henry
- The police, on attempting to put down a Gompertz and W. R. Witham were found
faction fight at Ballinhassig Fair, near Cork, guilty of conspiring to defraud George Pitt
are set upon by both parties, and used so Rose, late a captain in the 9th Lancers, of
severely that they fire in self-defence from a bills or acceptances to the amount of about
temporary police-station in which they had 17,000l.
taken refuge. Six of the fighting party were 25.-Ratification of a treaty of commerce killed on the spot and twenty-five wounded. between Great Britain and the Two Sicilies. - Mr. Smith O'Brien declines to serve on
28.-The foundation-stone of St. Mary's a Railway Committee, on the ground that he Hospital, Paddington, laid by Prince Albert. attends Parliament exclusively on Irish business.
- Tamatave, Madagascar, bombarded by two English and French gunboats, in retalia.
July 1.--A detachment of troops from Aucktion for the harsh measures adopted by the
land, under Colonel Despard, defeated by New Queen towards foreign traders.
Zealand natives while attempting to carry the - In the course of a debate on the Irish
fortified camp of the chief Heke. One-third of Colleges Bill, Mr. Roebuck described certain
the men engaged fell in the attack, and during followers of O'Connell as deserving of little
the eight days that operations were continued, respect either for their position or intellect.
the fourth of the whole number engaged-about The member for Sligo, Mr. Somers, sent him
500-were either killed or wounded. The a challenge to "justify" his words, whereupon
camp was ultimately taken, and Heke retired Mr. Roebuck replied that he would bring the into the interior. matter under the notice of the Speaker, as he 2.-Great gathering of Scottish Dissenters was determined that the free expression of in the Music Hall, Edinburgh, for the purpose opinion should not be coerced or checked in of enabling the friends of the voluntary prinhis person. Mr. Somers had assumed that | ciple to adopt such measures as may appear Mr. Roebuck was too well read in the old best calculated to avert the evils arising from
the continued and aggravated violation of the civil and religious rights of Dissenters.
2.-'The undress uniform coat and vest which Lord Nelson wore at the battle of Trafalgar having been discovered in private hands by Sir Harris Nicolas, Prince Albert causes them to be purchased in his name for 1501. with the view of presenting the precious relics to Greenwich Hospital.
- Chief Justice Tindal pronounces a judgment in the Court of Queen's Bench declaring the illegality of the lotteries known as “Derby sweeps.”
4.-Conflagration at Smyrna, destroying a great part of the city. In the Frank quarter thirty houses and shops, the hospital of St. Anthony, three-fourths of the establishment of the Sisters of Charity, with the Armenian church and school, fell a prey to the flames.
9.-The bill of Lord-Advocate Rutherford for regulating admission to the secular chairs of Scotch Universities thrown out on the second reading, by a majority of 116 to 108. Mr. Macaulay took charge of the bill on this occasion, and commented in strong terms on the inconsistency of the Government in dispensing with tests in Ireland one day, and insisting on them in Scotland the next, to support an ecclesiastical faction bent on persecution without even the miserable excuse of fanaticism.
10.-Discussion in the House of Lords concerning a petition presented by the Marquis of Breadalbane from the General Assembly of the Free Church of Scotland. It detailed at some length the grievances to which the Church was subjected by the refusal of proprietors in different parts of Scotland to grant sites for erecting places of worship, and prayed the House to afford relief.
- The Irish Colleges Bill read a third time in the House of Commons.
12.-Sir John Franklin forwards his last despatch to the Admiralty from the Whalefish Islands. The expedition was spoken by the Prince of Wales, whaler, on the 26th, the latest date of any intelligence regarding the discoPererers at sea.
- The report of a Select Committee appointed to inquire into the affairs of the South Eastern Railway Company, issued to-day, censures the proceedings of Mr. Hignett, Solicitor to the Board of Crdnance, Mr. Wray, the Receiver-General of Police, and Mr. Bonham.
15-Lord Palmerston's resolution opposing the admission of Spanish sugars under treaty, rejected by 175 to 87 votes.
16.-The “Press” admitted to inspect the decorations of the summer-house in Buckingham Palace gardens. The opening was made the subject of a ballad by Mr. Thackeray in his “Lyra Hibernica," then appearing in Punch.
- Died, John Adolphus, a leading criminal pieader, and author of various historical works.
17.-A bill, sent down from the House of Lords for removing the disabilities under which
the Jews laboured in accepting municipal offices, | read a second time in the House of Commons.
- Died at Howick Hall, Northumberland, aged 8o, Charles, Earl Grey, the chief of the Cabinet which passed the Reform Bill and secured the abolition of slavery.
19.-Fire at New York, destroying property valued at about 2,000,000l.
21.-Intelligence from New Zealand giving colour to the rumour that the British might be driven out of the colony altogether, Mr. C. Buller brings the subject before the House tonight, in the form of a motion expressing regret and apprehension at the present position of affairs. Negatived by 155 to 89 votes.
- Died, aged 65, Viscount Canterbury (Charles Manners Sutton), Speaker of the House of Commons from 1817 to 1835.
22.- In the course of a discussion in Com. mittee on the Irish Colleges Bill, Lord Stanley intimates that the Government intended to erect a central University to which the colleges could be affiliated.
24.-Came on at Taunton, before Mr. Baron Platt, the trial of James Majaval, Francisco Serva, and eight other of the Spanish pirates charged with the murders on board the Feli. cidade. (See March 2.) The main facts of the case having been brought out as mentioned above, Mr. Serjeant Manning submitted there was no case to go to a jury. In the first place, the Court had no jurisdiction, as the transaction took place in a foreign ship, and the parties were not within the peace of our Lady the Queen. Next, the Felicidade was not legally taken, and the men were not in legal custody, as they were not carrying on the slave-trade. The Felicidade had no slaves on board, and therefore the prisoners had a right to endeavour to escape, and they were justified in any act they might have committed with a view to accomplish that end. These men were not bound by the laws of any country of which they were not cognizant. In summing up, Baron Platt pointed out that the sea was the highway of nations, and all rovers and thieves and pirates who infested that highway were liable to punishment as much as highway robbers on land. They were the enemies of all nations, and might be hunted down by any Power whose flag could overcome and take them, for the highway of the seas received concurrent dominion from every country on the earth. He also thought, that not only was the Felicidade legally taken, but the prisoners were in the legal custody of the Queen's officers when they commenced to slay and drown. The jury returned a verdict of Guilty against seven of the pri. soners, who were sentenced to death. [The technical objections taken at the trial were argued before the judges in the Court of Excheguer on the 15th November. The conviction