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the different appearances presented by organs, when very large and very small.
The terms used to denote the gradations of size in the different organs, in an increasing ratio, are
4. Very small
Captain Ross has suggested, that numerals may be applied with advantage to the notation of development. He uses decimals; but these appear unnecessarily minute. The end in view may be attained by such a scale as the following:
8. Rather small
12. Rather full
16. Rather large
20. Very large
The intermediate figures denote intermediate degrees of size, for which we have no names. The advantage of adopting numerals would be, that the values of the extremes being known, we could judge accurately of the dimensions denoted by the intermediate numbers; whereas it is difficult to apprehend precisely the degrees of magnitude indicated by the terms small, full, large, &c. except we have seen them applied by the individual who uses them.
The terms small, moderate, full, &c. indicate the relative proportions of the organs to each other in the same head; but as the different organs may bear the same proportions in a small and in a large head, these terms do not enable the reader to discover, whether the head treated of be in its general magnitude small, moderate, or large. To supply this information, measurements by callipers are resorted to; but these are used not to indicate the dimensions of particular organs, for which purpose they are not adapted, but merely to designate the general size of the head.
The following are a few measurements from nature taken promiscuously from many more in my possession.
Total divided by 20 gives
Table of Measurements by Callipers.
From Ear to
From Ear to
ness to Cautious.
From Ideality to
બ ૦ m class code is no 0 બ cll» Ideality.
86 99 118 119 1137 103
518 51 530
These measurements are taken above the muscular integuments, and shew the sizes of the different heads in these directions; but I repeat that they are not given as indica
tions of the dimensions of any particular organs. The callipers are not suited for giving this latter information, for they do not measure length from the medulla oblongata, nor do they indicate breadth, both of which dimensions. must be attended to, in estimating the size of individual organs. The new Craniometer is preferable for ascertaining length, and the breadth may be judged of by means of the hand or eye. The average of these twenty heads will be higher than that of the natives of Britain generally, because there are several large heads among them, and none small.
It ought to be kept constantly in view, in the practical application of Phrenology, that it is the size of each organ in proportion to the others in the head of the individual observed, and not their absolute size, or their size in reference to any standard head, that determines the predominance in him of particular talents or dispositions. Thus, in the head of BELLINGHAM, Destructiveness is very large, and the organs of the moral sentiments aud intellect are small in proportion; and according to the rule, that, cæteris paribus, size determines energy, BELLINGHAM's most powerful tendencies are inferred to have been towards cruelty and rage. In the skulls of several Hindoos, the organ of Destructiveness is small in proportion to the others, and we conclude, that the tendency of such individuals would be weakest towards the foregoing passions. But in the head of GORDON, the murderer of the pedlar boy, the absolute size of Destructiveness is less than in the head of RAPHAEL ; yet RAPHAEL was an amiable man of genius, and GORDON an atrocious murderer. This illustrates the rule, that we ought not to judge by absolute size. In GORDON, the organs of the moral sentiments and intellectual faculties are small in proportion to that of Destructiveness, which is the largest in the brain; while in RAPHAEL, the moral and intellectual organs are large in proportion to Destructiveness. On the foregoing principle, the most powerful manifestations of RAPHAEL'S mind ought to have
been in the department of sentiment and intellect, and those of GORDON'S mind in Destructiveness and animal passion; and their actual dispositions corresponded. Still the dispositions of RAPHAEL would be characterised by the large size of this organ. It would communicate that warmth and vehemence of temper, which are found only when it is large, although the higher powers might restrain it from abuse.
It is one object to prove Phrenology to be true, and another to teach a beginner how to observe organs. For the first purpose, we never compare an organ in one head with the same organ in another; because, it is the predominance of particular organs in the same head, that gives ascendency to particular faculties in the individuals; and, therefore, in proving phrenology, we compare the different organs of the same head. But in learning to observe, it is useful to contrast the same organ in different heads, in order to become familiar with its appearance in different sizes and combinations.
With this view, it is proper to begin with the larger organs; and two persons of opposite dispositions, in the particular points to be compared, ought to be placed in juxtaposition, and their heads observed. Thus, if we take the organ of Cautiousness, we should examine its development in those whom we know to be remarkable for timidity, doubts and hesitation. We should contrast the appearance of the organ in such cases with that which it presents in individuals remarkable for precipitancy, and into whose minds doubt or fear rarely enters: or a person who is unable to distinguish one note from another, may be compared, in regard to the organ of Tune, with another who has a high natural genius for music. No error is more to be avoided, than beginning with the observation of the smaller organs, and examining these without a contrast.
An objection is frequently stated, that persons having large heads have "little wit," while others with small heads are very clever." The phrenologist never compares mental ability in general with size of brain in general; for
the fundamental principle of the science is, that different parts of the brain have different functions, and that hence the same absolute quantity of brain, if consisting of intellectual organs, may be connected with the highest genius; while, if consisting of the animal organs, lying immediately above and behind the ears, may indicate the most fearful energy of the lower propensities. The brains of Charibs seem to be equal in absolute size to those of average Europeans, but the chief development of the former is in the animal organs, and of the latter in the organs of sentiment and intellect; and no phrenologist would expect the one to be equal in intelligence and morality to the other, merely because their brains are equal in absolute magnitude. The proper test is to take two heads, in sound health, and of similar temperament and ages, in each of which the several organs are similar in their proportions, but the one of which is large, and the other small; and then, if the preponderance of power of manifestation is not in favour of the first, Phrenology must be abandoned as destitute of foundation.
In comparing the brains of the lower animals with the human brain, the phrenologist looks solely for the reflected light of analogy, to guide him in his researches, and never founds a direct argument in favour of the functions of the different parts of the human brain from any facts observed in regard to the lower animals; and the reason is, that such different genera of animals are too dissimilar in constitution and external circumstances, to authorise him to draw positive results from comparing them. Many philosophers, being convinced that the brain is the organ of mind, and having observed that the brain of a man is larger than that of the majority of tame animals, as the horse, dog, ox, have attributed the mental superiority of man to the superiority in absolute size of his brain; but the phrenologist does not acknowledge this conclusion as in accordance with the principles of his science. The brain in one of the lower creatures may be very large, and, nevertheless, if it be