are irregular; in the second, they are symmetrical, and correspond to the shapes of the organs delineated on the busts.

If, then, men in general manifest their true and natural sentiments and capacities in their actions; and if, in healthy individuals, the form of the brain may be discovered, by observing the figure of the head, it follows that the true faculties, and the true development, may be compared in living subjects; and, on these grounds, the proposition is established, That the Phrenological mode of philosophising is competent to enable us to attain the results sought for.


It has already been mentioned, that there are two hemispheres of the brain, corresponding in form and functions. There are, therefore, two organs for each mental power; one in each hemisphere. Each organ extends from the medulla oblongata, or top of the spinal marrow, to the surface of the brain or cerebellum; and every individual possesses all the organs in a greater or lesser degree. When the two organs of a faculty are situated immediately on the sides of the middle line separating the hemispheres, they are included in one space on the busts and plates. To save circumlocution, the expression, "organ" of a faculty will be used, but both organs will be thereby


The brain is not divided by lines corresponding to those delineated on the busts; but the forms assumed by its different parts, when extremely large or small, exactly resemble those there represented. Each part is inferred to be a separate organ; because its size, cæteris paribus, bears a regular proportion to the energy of a particular mental power. As size, cæteris paribus, is a measure of power *, the first

• See Introduction, p. 23, 24, 25, 26, &c.

object ought to be to distinguish the size of the brain generally, so as to judge whether it be large enough to admit of manifestations of ordinary vigour; for if it be too small, idiocy is an invariable consequence. The second object should be to ascertain the relative proportions of the different parts, so as to determine the direction in which the power is greatest.

It is proper to begin with observation of the more palpable differences in size, and particularly to attend to the relative proportions of the different lobes. The size of the anterior lobe is the measure of intellect. In the brain it is easily distinguished, and in the living head it is indicated by the portion lying before Constructiveness and Benevolence. Sometimes the lower part of the frontal lobe, connected with the perceptive faculties, is the largest, and this is indicated by the line before Constructiveness, extending farthest out at the base; sometimes the upper part, connected with the reflecting powers, is the most amply developed, which occurs when the line extends farthest in the upper region; sometimes both are equally developed. The student is particularly requested to resort invariably to this mode of estimating the size of the anterior lobe, as the best for avoiding mistakes. In some individuals, and in some Peruvian skulls in particular, the forehead is tolerably perpendicular, so that, seen in front, and judged of without attending to depth, it appears to be largely developed; whereas, when viewed in the way now pointed out, it is seen to be extremely shallow; in other words, the mass is not large, and the intellectual manifestations will be proportionately feeble.

The posterior lobe is devoted chiefly to the animal propensities. In the brain its size is easily distinguished; and in the living head a line may be drawn perpendicularly to the mastoid process, and all behind will belong to the posterior lobe. Wherever this and the basilar region are large, the animal feelings will be strong, and vice versa.

The coronal region of the brain is the seat of the moral sentiments; and its size may be estimated by the extent of elevation and expansion of the head above the organs of Causality in the forehead, and of Cautiousness in the middle of the parietal bones. When the whole region of the brain rising above these organs is shallow or narrow, the moral feelings will be weakly manifested; when high and expanded, they will be vigorously displayed.

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All that lies before line AA is the anterior lobe, or organs of the intellectual faculties. It is larger in the Reverend Mr M. than in the other two. The space above the horizontal dotted line B marks the region of the moral sentiments: The space from A backwards, below B, indicates the region of the propensities, which in BURKE and HARE is much larger in proportion to the size of the moral and intellectual regions than in the Reverend Mr M. These figures were drawn by Mr JOSEPH, by the Camera lucida, from casts from nature. If deduction be made for the thickness of the integuments and skull in all the three, the proportion of the moral regions in BURKE and HARE to the animal region will be very small.

By observing the proportions of the different regions, it will be discovered, that, in some instances, the greater mass of the brain lies between the ear and the forehead; in others between the ear and the occiput; and in others above the ear in perpendicular height. Great differences in breadth are also remarkable; some heads being narrow throughout, and some broad. Some are narrow before, and broad behind, and vice versa. The busts of the Reverend Mr M., MARY MACINNES, PALLET, and HAGGART, may be contrasted with this view *.

• The Casts and Skulls, referred to in the subsequent pages, as illustrative of particular organs, are to be found in the collection of the Phreno

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After becoming familiar with the general size and configuration of heads, the student may proceed to the observation of individual organs; and, in studying them, the real dimensions, including both length and breadth, and not the mere prominence of each organ, should be looked for.

In estimating the size of the organs, both length and breadth must be attended to. The length of an organ is ascertained by the distance from the medulla oblongata to the peripheral surface. A line passing through the head from one ear to the other, would nearly touch the medulla oblongata, and hence the external opening of the ear is assumed as a convenient point from which to estimate length. The breadth of an organ is judged of by its peripheral expansion; and it is a general law of physiology, that the breadth of any organ throughout its whole course, bears a relation to its expansion at the surface: the optic and olfactory nerves are examples in point. It has been objected that the breadth of the organs cannot be ascertained, because the boundaries of them are not sufficiently determi


In answer, I observe, that although the boundaries of the different organs cannot be determined with mathematical precision, like those of a triangle, a square, or rhomboid; yet, in a single case, an accurate observer may make a very near approximation to the truth; and, in a great multitude of cases, the very doctrine of chances, and of the compensation of errors, must satisfy any one that these boundaries may be defined with sufficient precision for all practical purposes. Even in the exact sciences themselves, an approximate solution is frequently all that is attainable; and if the opponents would only make themselves masters of

logical Society, which, by the liberality of the Society, is open to public inspection, in their Hall, Clyde Street, Edinburgh, every Saturday from One to Three o'clock.

Duplicates of most of these casts and skulls are exhibited and sold by Mr JAMES DE VILLE, Strand, London; by Messrs LUKE O'NEILL and SON, Canongate, Edinburgh; and by their agents.

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