can compose exquisite music, who has not the faculty of Tune, or write exquisite poetry, who has not the sentiment of Ideality. When, therefore, we perceive, even with the most transient glance, such acts to be performed, we have evidence, insuperable and irresistible, of the existence of the faculties which produce them.

These opinious have been entertained by persons conversant with society, not in consequence of logical deduction or metaphysical investigations, but from the observation of plain facts, presented to the cognizance of their understandings.

Thus fortified, I venture to conclude that the first point is established in favour of Phrenology, viz. that it is possible, by accurate, patient, and continued observation of actions, to discover the true dispositions and capacities which individuals possess. As this philosophy is founded on a comparison betwixt the manifestations of these faculties, and the development of the brain, the second point to be ascertained is, Whether it be possible, in general, to discover the true form of the brain, by observing the figure of the head.


THE Anatomy of the Brain is minutely described by Dr SPURZHEIM, in his anatomical work. It is not indispensably necessary, although highly advantageous, to become acquainted with it, in order to become a practical phrenologist. A brief description of its general appearance will suffice to convey an idea of it to the non-medical reader. The proper subjects for observation are healthy individuals below the middle period of life. The brain, stript of its outer covering the dura mater, is represented in figures 1. and 2. These figures and the accompanying descriptions, are not intended for anatomical purposes; the sole object of them is to convey some conception of the appearance of the brain, to readers who have no opportunity of secing it in


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Figure 1. represents the upper surface of the brain, stript of membrane; the skull, through the middle part of which a horizontal section is made, surrounds it. The front is at A; and the line A B is the division between the two hemispheres. A strong membrane called the falciform process of the dura mater, represented on page 78, de. scends into it; and forms the partition. It goes down only about two-thirds of the depth; below which the two hemispheres are joined together by fibres which cross, forming what is called the corpus callosum. The waving lines are the convolutions, the furrows between which descend from half an inch to an inch in depth. When water collects in the internal parts they are unfolded, and the brain presents a uniform surface of great extent. The parts seen in this figure are all composed externally of cineritious substance.


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Figure 2. represents the base of the brain taken out of the skull. This figure has been copied from a different brain from that repre. sented in figure 1. It is longer and narrower. The division into hemispheres does not descend to the base. Anatomists, for the sake of giving precision to descriptions, divide the brain into three lobes, called the anterior, middle, and posterior. The parts before AA are called the frontal or anterior lobe; the parts behind CC, the posterior lobe; and the parts between them, the middle lobe. Anatomists draw lines from AA and CC directly up the sides, and over the upper surface of the brain, till they meet at the top, and include in the different lobes the whole parts so mapped out; but the lines are imaginary, and like those of latitude and longitude on a globe, are introduced merely to indicate the localities of the parts. The convolutions before AA lie chiefly on the bones which form the roofs of the sockets of the eye-balls. The convolutions between A and C lie chiefly above the ear. DD is the cerebellum.

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E is the medulla oblongata, which during life descends almost perpendicularly from the brain, and joins with the top of the spinal mar


The BRAIN is a mass of soft matter, not homogeneous, but presenting different appearances. Part of it is white in colour, fibrous or striated in texture, arranged in lines distantly resembling the outer surface of a cockle-shell. This is generally named medullary substance, and abounds most in the interior. The other matter is of a grey colour, and has no fibrous appearance. It is called cineritious, from the similarity of its hue to that of ashes, and sometimes cortical, from its supposed resemblance to bark. bark. It forms the outer part of the brain. The cineritious substance does not blend gradually with the white medullary matter, but, on the contrary, the line of distinction is abrupt. The cineritious seems to have a greater proportion of blood circulating in it than the medullary. There is no fat or adipose substance within the skull, although it pervades every other part of the body.

The brain consists of two hemispheres, separated by a strong membrane, called the Falciform process of the dura mater. Each hemisphere is divided into three lobes, the anterior, middle, and posterior. The cerebellum is distinct from, but connected with, the brain. Mr BELL observes, that "whatever we observe on one side has a corresponding part on the other; and an exact resemblance and symmetry is preserved in all the lateral divisions of the brain. And so, if we take the proof of anatomy, we must admit, that, as the nerves are double, and the organs of sense double, so is the brain double; and every sensation

Anatomy of the Brain, ii. 381.

There is a gene

+ This statement of Mr BELL is not rigidly correct. ral correspondence between the parts on the opposite sides of the brain, but not "an exact symmetry," in the strict sense of these words. The approximation to symmetry is about as great as between the blood vessels in the right and left arms.

conveyed to the brain is conveyed to the two lateral parts, and the operations performed must be done in both lateral portions at the same moment."

The two hemispheres, and of course the organs of each side, are brought into communication and co-operation by fibres running transversely; these are called the corpus callosum, and the Anterior and Posterior commissures. The cerebellum and brain are only slightly and indirectly connected.

The greater part of the brain is destitute of sensibility: It may be pierced or cut without the patient being aware, from any feeling of pain, that it is suffering injury. Mr BELL mentions, that he "had his finger deep in the anterior lobes of the brain, when the patient, being at the same time acutely sensible, and capable of expressing himself, complained only of the integument." So far from thinking the parts of the brain which are insensible, to be parts inferior in function (as every part has its use), Mr BELL states, that, even from this, he should be led to imagine that they had a higher office, namely, that they were more allied to intellectual operations. The wide difference of function betwixt a part destined to receive impressions, and a part which is the seat of thought, is in accordance with the presence of sensibility in some parts of the brain, and its absence in others.

The external substance of the brain is arranged in convolutions or folds. The convolutions appear intended for the purpose of increasing the superficial extent of the brain, with the least possible enlargement of its absolute size; an arrangement analogous to that employed in the eye of the eagle and falcon, in which the retina does not form a continuous line, as in man and quadrupeds, but is presented in folds to the rays of light, whereby the intensity of vision is increased in proportion to the extent of nervous surface exposed to their influence. The rolling up of the substance of the brain in folds in a similar manner, strong

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