PASSION is the highest degree of activity of every faculty; and the passions are as different as the faculties: Thus, a passion for glory, is the result of a high activity of the Love of Approbation; a passion for money, of Acquisitiveness; a passion for music, of the faculty of Tune; a passion for metaphysics, of Causality. Hence there can be no such thing as factitious passions, although such are spoken of in various books. Man cannot alter his nature; and every object that he can desire must be desired in consequence of its tending to gratify some natural faculty.

"LOCKE, and many modern writers," says Dr SPURZHEIM, "maintain that children are destitute of passions; and it is true, that there is, in adults, one passion which is not observed in children, the passion of love. There have been, however, some individuals, who, at three or four years of age, have felt passionately this propensity; and, in general, the greater number of inclinations manifest themselves with energetic activity in children. The opponents of Phrenology, for the most part, confound the objects upon which the particular faculties act at different ages, with the inclinations themselves. Children, it is true, have no inclination to defraud the orphan of his inheritance, or to conquer kingdoms: but they sometimes deceive one another for a bird's nest; they fight for playthings, and they are proud to occupy the first place at school;" and the same faculties which give the desires for these objects, when differently directed in after-life, produce the various passions which characterize our maturer years. The boy who is extremely mortified at losing a place, and burns with a desire to stand at the top of his class, will not be destitute of ambition when a man.

PLEASURE and PAIN are affections of every faculty. Every faculty, when indulged in its natural action, feels pleasure; "when disagreeably affected feels pain: consequently the kinds of pain and pleasure are as numerous as the faculties. Hence one individual delights in generously

pardoning offences, and another in taking revenge; one is happy in the possession of riches, and another glories in disdaining the vanities of mankind." Thus, "pain and pleasure are the result, and not the cause, of the particular faculties *."

PATIENCE, and IMPATIENCE. Patience as a positive feeling, arises from large development of Benevolence, Veneration, Hope, Conscientiousness, and Firmness, combined with small Self-Esteem. This combination is accompanied with meekness, humility, constancy and resignation; the constituent elements of a patient and enduring spirit. Apathy may arise from a highly lymphatic temperament, or great deficiency of brain; by persons ignorant of human nature, this state is sometimes mistaken for patience; just as the extinction of thought and feeling in a nation, is mistaken by a despot for the repose of content


An individual possessing an active temperament, and SelfEsteem, Combativeness and Destructiveness, larger than Benevolence, Veneration, and Conscientiousness, will be impatient of opposition and contradiction; one in whom Tune, Time, and Ideality are large, will be impatient of bad music; one in whom Benevolence, Conscientiousness, and Causality are large, will be impatient of hypocritical and selfish conduct. If the nervous and sanguine temperaments predominate, the organs are very active, and the individual will be impatient of all slow prosing movements, whether in speech or actions.

JOY and GRIEF. Mr HUME enters into a very acute and refined analysis, to shew that grief and joy are merely mixtures of hope and fear. After treating of several passions, he continues thus: "None of these passions seem to

• Dr SPURZHEIM's New Physiognomical System.

contain any thing curious or remarkable, except hope and fear, which, being derived from the probability of any good or evil, are mixed passions, that merit our attention."

"Probability," says he, "arises from an opposition of contrary chances or causes, by which the mind is not allowed to fix on either side; but is incessantly tossed from one to another, and is determined one moment to consider an object as existent, and another moment as the contrary."


Suppose, then, that the object concerning which we are doubtful, produces either desire or aversion, it is evident that, according as the mind turns itself to one side or the other, it must feel a momentary impression of joy or


"The passions of fear and hope may arise, when the chances are equal on both sides, and no superiority can be discovered in one above the other. Nay, in this situation, the passions are rather the strongest, as the mind has then the least foundation to rest upon, and is tossed with the greatest uncertainty. Throw in a superior degree of probability to the side of grief, you immediately see that passion diffuse itself over the composition, and tincture it with fear. Increase the probability, and by that means the grief; the fear prevails still more, till at last it runs insensibly, as the joy continually diminishes, into pure grief. After you have brought it to this situation, diminish the grief by a contrary operation to that which increased it, to-wit, by diminishing the probability on the melancholy side, and you will see the passion clear every moment, till it changes insensibly into hope; which again runs, by slow degrees, into joy, as you increase that part of the composition by the increase of the probability." Mr HUME Concludes by this question: "Are not these as plain proofs that the passions of Fear and Hope are mixtures of Grief and Joy, as in optics it is a proof that a coloured ray of the sun, passing through a prism, is a composition of two others, when, as you diminish or increase the quantity of either,

you find it prevail proportionally, more or less, in the composition ? *»

These views are exceedingly ingenious, and, to a certain extent, sound; but Phrenology presents us with still more distinct and accurate elucidations of the nature of grief and joy. Each propensity desires to attain its object, and the attainment affords to the mind a feeling of gratification. Acquisitiveness desires wealth; Love of Approbation longs for praise and distinction, and Self-Esteem pants for authority. The obtaining of wealth gratifies Acquisitiveness; this is attended with pleasing emotions, and these emotions constitute Joy. The losing of wealth robs Acquisitiveness of its object; this, again, is accompanied with painful sensations, and these are grief. The same remarks may be applied to Love of Approbation, Self-Esteem, or Philoprogenitiveness. When a lovely child is born, the delight experienced by the parents will be in proportion to the ardour of their desire for offspring; or, in other words, their joy will be great in proportion to the gratification of their Philoprogenitiveness. If they lose the child, their grief will be severe in proportion to the intensity of this feeling, lacerated by the removal of its object. In all these instances we find joy and grief existing without involving either hope or fear.

Let us now advert to Mr HUME's analysis. Cautiousness and Hope are both primitive sentiments, the former producing fear, and the latter an emotion sui generis, attended with delight. Both have relation to future objects, and in this respect differ from the other faculties, the gratification of which relates to present time; but this circumstance does not change the laws of their operation. If the prospect of future evil be presented to the mind, this excites Cautiousness, and fear is produced; this emotion is painful, but fear is not grief. It is to be observed, however, that there must be the fear of something; and as evil is a disagreeable affection of some primitive faculty, of Acqui• HUME's Dissertation on the Passions, sect. 1.

sitiveness or Philoprogenitiveness for example, Cautiousness is never affected alone, but always in conjunction with some other power. Thus, if a son is sick, Cautiousness fears that he will die, and Philoprogenitiveness is painfully affected by the prospect of that event, which painful emotion is grief. Here fear and grief are conjoined; but they arise from different sources, and although the fear cannot exist without the grief, in some degree or other, yet the grief might exist without the fear; and would do so, if the child were carried in a corpse without a moment's warning. In the same way, if a person hopes, he must hope for something. If for gaining £1000, the prospect gratifies Acquisitiveness, and this is joy. Here the active Hope and gratified Acquisitiveness mingle in producing Joy, but still their sources are separate; and if the £ 1000 were realized, Joy would exist without the Hope, although Hope can scarcely be active without Joy. The principles here unfolded will be found to elucidate every instance of the operation of Hope and Fear, Joy and Grief, which can be supposed, and this is a strong proof that we have found the truth. They explain beautifully, for instance, how, with many individuals, the anticipation of good is more delightful than the enjoyment of it. If Acquisitiveness and Hope be both strong, the prospect of gain excites and gratifies both faculties at once; whereas, the actual attainment pleases only Acquisitiveness, and excludes Hope. But Hope being one of the higher sentiments, and Acquisitiveness only a lower propensity, the delights attending the activity of the former are greatly more elevated and excellent than those accompanying the latter; and it is easy to conceive that the exercise of both must be more delightful than that of either separately, and that when Hope is dropped from the combination, the better half of the pleasure is gone.

The converse of this holds equally good. The prospect of distant evil is more painful than the experience of it when actually present. While the loss of a child is contemplated at a distance, Cautiousness adds its melancholy

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