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which are analogous, which resemble one another in their nature and uses, or which act upon and co-operate with one another, or mutually aid and assist, or control and balance, each other, we should naturally expect the organs of these powers to be situated near to one another, and in such a way as either to adjoin, or at least to admit of an easy communication. Accordingly we find this to be the case." Immediately above Amativeness, for example, we see in the bust Philoprogenitiveness, giving the love of offspring, and Adhesiveness, producing the propensity to attachment, the three together constituting the group of the domestic feelings. Next to them we find Combativeness, as if there were no dearer objects than these for which the various powers could be exerted. Adjoining to Combativeness is Destructiveness; the former giving courage to meet the enemy, the latter putting peril in the onset, and threatening him with destruction.

Amid the difficulties of life, it is necessary to use not only caution but also so much of secrecy regarding our own purposes, as not to carry our hearts on our sleeves for daws to peck at," and we find Secretiveness surmounted by and in juxtaposition with Cautiousness.

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Turning to the region of the Sentiments, we find Veneration, which produces the tendency to religion, surrounded by Benevolence, Hope, Perseverance, and Justice; or the fountains of the whole charities and duties of life associated in a group, and beautifully arranged for reciprocal aid and combined action.

We find Ideality approaching these, but a little below them, yet so near to and above Constructiveness as to elevate its designs. Ideality also adjoins to Wit and Tune, as if to give soul and fancy to poetry.

In like manner we find the organs which simply perceive, or the Knowing Organs, arranged together, along the superciliary ridge, and those of Reflection occupying the summit of the forehead, like the powers which govern and direct the whole.

Mr SCOTT, after exhibiting these views, observes, that such an arrangement is more beautiful, systematic, and appropriate, than human ingenuity could have devised; and taken in connexion with the fact, that the organs were discovered at different times, and in separate situations, and that Order and Beauty appeared only after the ultimate filling up of the greater part of the brain had taken place, it affords a strong argument à priori, that the organs were discovered, not invented, and that the system is the work of nature, and not of Drs GALL and SPURZHEIM.

In treating of the organ of Language, I have explained the association of ideas with signs. I may here add, that the doctrines of Mnemonics are founded on this power of the mind to associate ideas with arbitrary signs. In devising means for aiding the memory, it ought constantly to be kept in view, that every individual will associate, with greatest ease, Ideas with such external objects as he has the greatest natural facility in perceiving. For example, sometimes space is used as the medium of recalling the ideas wished to be remembered. The room is divided, in imagination, into compartments, and the first topic of the discourse is placed in the first compartment, the second into the second, and so on; so that, by going over the spaces, the different heads of the discourse with which they were associated will be recalled. It is obvious, however, that it is only if Locality be large that such a device can be serviceable; because if this faculty be weak, it will be as difficult to imagine and recollect the compartments, as the discourse itself. If, in like manner, numbers are resorted to as the connecting medium, so that on hearing one idea, which we wish to recollect, we shall associate it with the number one, and on hearing another which we wish to recollect, we shall associate it with the number two, it is obvious, that, unless the faculty of number be powerful, this will be a more difficult process than that of simple recollection. Hence, different modes of recollection should be used for different individuals. He who has Number most power

ful, will associate words most easily with numbers; he who has Form most energetic, will associate words most easily with figures; he who has Locality most vigorous, will associate words most easily with space; and he who has Tune most powerful, will associate words most easily with musical notes. Hence, also, the influence of associations on our judgment is easily accounted for. He in whom Veneration is powerful, and to whom the image of a saint has been from infancy presented as an object to be venerated, experiences an instantaneous and involuntary emotion of Veneration, every time the image is presented to him, or a conception of it formed; because it is now the sign which excites in him that emotion, altogether independently of Reflecting Faculties. Until we can break this association, and prevent the conception of the image from operating as a sign to excite the faculty of Veneration, we shall never succeed in bringing his understanding to examine the real attributes of the object itself, and to perceive its want of every quality that ought justly to be venerated. In the same way, when a person is in love, the perception or conception of the object beloved stirs up the faculties which feel into such vivid emotion; that emotion is so delightful, and the Reflecting Faculties have so little Consciousness, that the real source of the fascination is in the faculties which feel, that it is impossible to make the lover see the object with the eyes of a disinterested spectator. If we could once break the association betwixt the object and the faculties which feel, the Reflecting Faculties would then perform their functions faithfully, and the object would be seen in its true colours. But, while we are unable to break this link, and to prevent this fascination, we may reason ad sempiternum, and our conclusions will never appear to be sound, because the premises, that is, the appearance of the object, will never be the same to the party most interested in the argument and to us.

Thus, the associations which mislead the judgment, and perpetuate prejudices, are those of words or things with

feelings or sentiments, and not associations of conceptions with conceptions, or merely of ideas with ideas. The whole classes of ideas formed by the Knowing and Reflecting Faculties may be associated ad infinitum, if these ideas do not become linked with the propensities and sentiments, and no moral prejudices will arise.

In studying the laws of association, therefore, we must go beyond the ideas themselves, and consider the faculties which form them. If the faculties be kept in view, the whole phenomena of association will appear lucid and intelligible; and we shall find nature confirming our principles, because they will be founded on her laws. We shall see the individual who has the Reflecting faculties most powerful, associating ideas according to the relation of necessary consequence; we shall perceive him who has the Knowing Faculties most powerful, associating ideas according to the relations of time, place, and circumstances; and, very often, although not always, we shall find each individual associating with most facility, and recollecting most perfectly those ideas, which minister to the gratification of his most powerful propensities or sentiments. If we seek only for relations among individual ideas themselves, or for general laws, according to which ideas are associated in all individuals, our researches will never be crowned with success. No stronger proof of this fact could be found, than the circumstance, that, although different individuals will use the same process of reasoning to produce the same conviction, yet no two will state their arguments in the same words, or make use of the same illustrations. The general identity of the reasoning process depends on the identity of the constitution of the faculties which reason; but difference in words and illustration arises from the particular combination of organs belonging to the individual, and from the circumstances in which he has been placed, which afford his faculties the particular materials which he uses.

In all ages, unprincipled individuals have availed themselves of the law of association before explained, to enslave

the minds of their fellow men. By means of early impressions, they have connected certain practices and notions favourable to their own power, with the sentiments of Cautiousness, Conscientiousness and Veneration in the people, and thereby caused them to fear objects existing only in imagination, and to perform actions inconsistent with the welfare of society. Phrenology will tend to bring this species of tyranny to an end. Each faculty has a sphere of legitimate action, established by the Creator, which is in harmony with every interest that he acknowledges as pure and beneficial; but there is also a boundless field of abuse of each, favourable to base and selfish purposes. While the faculties themselves, and their relations to each other, and external objects, are unknown, and the human intellect is uncaltivated and ignorant, it is extremely difficult for ordinary minds to distinguish accurately the boundaries of right; and hence a wide door is opened to abuse of every power. From this cause error is extensively mixed up with truth, and deliberately so, by the unprincipled, who hope to profit by delusion; hence the opinions and institutions of society in most countries present a feeble and inconsistent appearance; so that, in the moral world, we perceive little of that magnificent power and comprehensive design, applied for benevolent ends, which are so conspicuous in physical creation. In this state of things, it is not difficult to impress false and prejudicial notions on the minds of youth, and to support them through life by observances fitted to give them permanence; and on this basis individual interest erects its baneful structures. But when the faculties, and their relations, shall be generally studied, and knowledge of their legitimate spheres of action shall be obtained, the discovery will be made, that creation is constituted in harmony only with their proper manifestations, and then acute perception of right, with high determination to pursue it, will take the place of groping blindness, and irresolute imbecility, which now characterize the moral aspects of society in many countries of the world.

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