that they possess a high nervous or sanguine temperament, communicating to the brain great internal activity. They would require, in the next place, Language, Individuality, Eventuality, Comparison, Tune, and Ideality, all large The great and uncommon activity supposed, would produce the readiness of conception and warmth of feeling which are the first requisites; large endowment of Individuality and Eventuality would supply facts and incidents necessary to give substance and action to the composition; Comparison would afford similes, metaphors and illustrations; Ideality would contribute elevation; Tune give rhythm, and Language afford expression to the whole ideas so formed and combined. Observation only can determine whether these conjectures be correct, but the causes here assigned appear to be adequate to the effects, and this, in a hypothesis, is all that can be expected.

MEMORY also is a mode of Activity of the faculties. In most individuals, the mind has no power of calling up, into fresh existence, the emotions experienced by means of the propensities and sentiments, by merely willing them to be felt, and hence we hold these faculties not to possess Memory. The ideas, however, formed by the Knowing and Reflecting Faculties, can be reproduced by an act of recollection, which powers are, therefore, said to have Memory. Memory is thus merely a degree of activity of the Knowing and Reflecting Organs. I have said that Conception and Imagination also result from the internal activity of the organs; and the question naturally arises, in what respect does Memory differ from them? The difference appears to be this,-in Conception and Imagination, new combinations of ideas are formed, not only without regard to the time or order in which the elementary notions had previously existed, but even without any direct reference to their having at all existed before. Memory, on the other hand, implies a new conception of impressions previously received, attended with the idea of

past time, and consciousness of their former existence; and it follows the order of the events as they happened in nature. Each organ enables the mind to recal the impressions which it served at first to receive. Thus, the organ of Tune will recal notes formerly heard, and give the memory of music. Form will recal figures previously observed, will give the memory of persons, pictures, and crystals, and produce a talent for becoming learned in matters connected with such objects. Individuality and Eventuality will confer memory for facts, and render a person skilled in history, both natural and civil. A person in whom Causality is powerful, will possess a natural memory for metaphysics. Hence there may be as many kinds of memory as there are Knowing and Reflecting Organs; and an individual may have great memory for one class of ideas, and very little for another; GEorge BidDER had an almost inconceivable power of recollecting arithmetical calculations, while in memory of history or languages he did not surpass ordinary men. As the recollection of facts and occurrences is what is commonly meant, in popular language, by a great memory, individuals so gifted will generally be found to possess a good development of Individuality, Eventuality, and probably of Language.

There appears to be a quality of brain, which gives retentiveness, so that one individual retains impressions much longer than another, although their combination of organs be the same. It is said that Sir WALTER SCOTT possesses this characteristic in a high degree; but the cause of it is unknown. This fact does not invalidate the theory of Memory now given; because in every individual, the power of retaining one kind of impressions is greater than that of retaining another, and this power bears a uniform relation to the size of the organs.

Dr WATTS seems to have anticipated, by a very acute conjecture, the real philosophy of Memory. He says, "It is most probable that those very fibres of the brain which

assist at the first idea or perception of an object, are the same which assist also at the recollection of it; and then it will follow, that the memory has no special part of the brain devoted to its own service, but uses all those in general which subserve our sensation, as well as our think... ing and reasoning powers *." This conjecture coincides exactly with Mr Hood's case of the person in Kilmarnock, who, although able to articulate, lost all power of recollecting arbitrary signs, and, with a sound judgment and clear understanding, forgot, through disease, his own name and the names of every person and thing with which previously he was most familiar. This could be accounted for only on the principle, that the organ of Language had lost the power of internal activity at command of the will, while the organs of the reflecting powers remained entire. The fact, also, of the memory failing in old age, before the judgment is impaired, is accounted for on the same prin ciple. Age diminishes the susceptibility and activity of the organs; and hence they are unable to receive and to re produce impressions with the vivacity of youth. Judgment is an exercise of the faculties on present objects, and does not require the same portion of internal and spontaneous excitement for its execution. It is known, that, after the mind has become dead to the recollection of recent occurrences, it recalls, with great vivacity, the impressions of youth and boyish years. These were first imprinted at a time when the whole system was extremely susceptible, and subsequently have been often recalled; hence, perhaps, the organs are capable of resuming the state corresponding to them, after they have ceased to be capable of retaining impressions from events happening when their vigour has decayed.

The doctrine that memory is only a degree of activity of the faculties, is illustrated by the phenomena of diseases which particularly excite the brain. Sometimes, under the

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influence of disease, the most lively recollections of things will take place, which had entirely escaped from the memory in a state of health. "A most remarkable example of this kind occurred some years ago at St Thomas's Hospital *. A man was brought in, who had received a considerable injury of the head, but from which he ultimately recovered. When he became convalescent, he spoke a language which no one about him could comprehend. However, a Welsh milk-woman came one day into the ward, and immediately understood what he said. It appeared that this poor fellow was a Welshman, and had been from his native country about thirty years. In the course of that period, he had entirely forgotten his native tongue, and acquired the English language. But when he recovered from his accident, he forgot the language he had been so recently in the habit of speaking, and acquired the knowledge of that which he had originally acquired and lost!" Such a fact as this is totally inexplicable, on any principle except that of the existence of organs by which the faculties are manifested: for it could not be the mind itself which was affected, and its faculties impaired by the fever, or which recovered long lost knowledge, by the influence of disease. At the same time, the manner in which such an effect is produced, is entirely unknown.

The case of which the following is an abstract, was communicated by Dr DEWAR to the Royal Society, and although highly interesting, is at present inexplicable.

In a "Report on a communication from Dr DYCE of Aberdeen, on Uterine Irritation, and its effects on the female constitution †," Dr DEWAR states, that "It is a case of mental disease, attended with some advantageous manifestations of the intellectual powers; and these manifestations disappearing in the same individual in the healthy state. It is an instance of a phenomenon which is sometimes called double consciousness, but is more properly a di

TUPPER'S Inquiry into GALL's System, p. 33. + Read to the Royal Society in February 1822.

vided consciousness, or double personality, exhibiting in some measure two separate and independent trains of thought, and two independent mental capabilities, in the same individual; each train of thought, and each capability, being wholly dissevered from the other, and the two states in which they respectively predominate subject to frequent interchanges and alternations."

The patient was a girl of sixteen, the affection appeared immediately before puberty, and disappeared when that state was fully established. It lasted from 2d March to 11th June 1815, under the eye of Dr DYCE. "The first symptom was an uncommon propensity to fall asleep in the evenings. This was followed by the habit of talking in her sleep on these occasions. One evening she fell asleep in this manner, imagined herself an Episcopal clergyman, went through the ceremony of baptizing three children, and gave an appropriate extempore prayer. Her mistress shook her by the shoulders, on which she awoke, and appeared unconscious of every thing, except that she had fallen asleep, of which she shewed herself ashamed. She sometimes dressed herself and the children while in this state, or, as Mrs L. called it, "dead asleep ;" answered questions put to her, in such a manner as to shew that she understood the question; but the answers were often, though not always, incongruous." One day, in this state, she "set the breakfast with perfect correctness, with her eyes shut. She afterwards awoke with the child on her knee, and wondered how she got on her clothes." Sometimes the cold air wakened her, at other times she was seized with the affection while walking out with the children. "She sang a hymn delightfully in this state, and from a comparison which Dr DYCE had an opportunity of making, it appeared incomparably better done than she could accomplish when well.”

"In the mean time, a still more singular and interesting symptom began to make its appearance. The circumstances which occurred during the paroxysm were completely forgotten

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