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supplying ANNE ORMEROD's deficiency of Tune by harsh treatment; and if HAGGART'S Conscientiousness was naturally as deficient, we could as little have succeeded in enabling him to feel and act justly by mere severity of punishment. The reasonable plan in such cases is, first, to place the individual in circumstances as little as possible requiring the exercise of the deficient faculty; not to place ANNE ORMEROD in a band of singers; nor one like DAVID HAGGART in a confidential situation, where property is entrusted to him. In the next place, to present to all the organs of the higher sentiments which he possesses largely developed, motives calculated to control the propensities, so as to supply, as much as possible, the place of the feeble Conscientiousness.
If the principle that large organs give strong desires, and small organs weak impulses, be correct, Phrenology must be calculated in an eminent degree to be practically useful in society. If, in choosing a servant, we are afraid or ashamed to examine the head, and light upon one with a brain extremely deficient, like that of MARY MACINNES, and if certain strong animal feelings accompany this development, we shall unquestionably suffer great annoyance as the consequence. If we select a servant very deficient in Conscientiousness as a child's maid, she will labour under a natural blindness to truth, and not only lie herself, but teach the children entrusted to her care this abominable vice. If a merchant selects a clerk with a head like DAVID HAGGART'S, and places money at his disposal, the strong animal feelings, unrestrained by Conscientiousness, will prompt him to embezzle it. It is incredible to what an extent evils might be mitigated, or prevented in society, by the practical application of this principle. I have applied it in the selection of servants with great advantage.
In the next place, if the presentment of the object of a faculty rouses it into instant activity, as suffering benevolence, or danger fear, this becomes a highly important principle in the education of children. If we put on the
natural language of Destructiveness and Self-Esteem in our intercourse with them, we shall cultivate those very faculties in their minds, by exciting the organs; if we manifest Benevolence and Veneration in their presence, we shall excite the same faculties in them; if we discourse constantly about money, the desire of increasing it, and the fear of losing it, we shall stimulate the organs of Acquisitiveness, and Self-Esteem in them, and increase the power of these propensities.
In the third place, The faculties of which we are now speaking may be excited to activity, or repressed, indirectly, by an effort of the will. Thus, the Knowing and Reflecting Faculties have the function of forming ideas. If these faculties be employed to conceive internally objects fitted by nature to excite the propensities and sentiments, the latter will start into activity in the same manner, but not with so much intensity as if their appropriate objects were externally present. For example, if we conceive inwardly an object in distress, and Benevolence be powerful, compassion will be felt, and tears will sometimes flow from the emotion produced. In like manner, if we wish to repress the activity of Ideality, we cannot do so merely by willing that the sentiment be quiet; but if we conceive objects fitted to excite Veneration, Fear, Pride, or Benevolence, these faculties will then be excited, and Ideality will sink into inactivity. The vivacity of the feeling, in such cases, will be in proportion to the strength of the conception, and the energy of the propensities and sentiments together.
Hence he who has any propensity or sentiment predominantly active from internal excitement of the organ, will have his intellect filled with conceptions fitted to gratify it; or, in other words, the habitual subjects of thought in the mind are determined by the organs which are predominantly active from internal excitement. If the cerebellum be permanently active, the individual will be prone to collect pictures, books and anecdotes, fitted to gratify this feeling; his mind will be much occupied with such ideas, and they will afford him delight. If, in another indivi
dual, Constructiveness, Ideality and Imitation, be internally active, he will desire to see pictures, busts, and works of art, in which skill, beauty and expression, are combined. He will know much about such objects, be fond of possessing them, and of talking of them. If, in another individual, Acquisitiveness be internally active, he will feel a great and natural interest in all matters connected with wealth, and be inspired with an eager curiosity to know the profits of different branches of trade, and the property possessed by different individuals. If Benevolence be internally active, the mind will run habitually on schemes of philanthropy, such as those of HowARD, Mr OWEN, or Mrs FRY. In these cases, the liking for the object or pursuit depends upon the particular propensities or sentiments which are active; the intellectual faculties serve as the ministering instruments of their gratification.
These principles explain readily the great variety of tastes and dispositions among mankind; for in no two individuals is exactly the same combination of organs to be found, and hence every one is inspired with feelings in some degree peculiar to himself, and desires objects fitted for his special gratification.
As the faculties of the Propensities and Sentiments do not form Ideas, and as it is impossible to excite or recal directly by an act of the will, the feelings or emotions produced by them, it follows that these faculties have not the attributes of Perception, Conception, Memory, Imagination: They have the attribute of Sensation alone; that is to say, when they are active, a sensation or emotion is experienced. Hence Sensation is an accompaniment of the activity of all the faculties which feel, and of the nervous system in general; but sensation is not a faculty itself.
The laws of the KNOWING and REFLECTING faculties are different: These faculties form Ideas, and perceive Relations; they are subject to the will, or rather constitute
will themselves, and minister to the gratification of the other faculties which only feel.
1st, These faculties, also, may be active from internal excitement of the organs, and then the kinds of ideas which they are fitted to form are presented involuntarily to the mind. The musician feels the notes flowing on him uncalled for. A man in whom Number is powerful and active calculates by a natural impulse. He in whom Form is vigorous, conceives figures by internal inspiration. He in whom Causality is powerful and active, reasons while he thinks, without an effort. He in whom Wit is energetic, feels witty conceptions flowing into his mind spontaneously, and even at times and places when he would wish them not to appear.
2dly, These faculties may be excited by the presentation of external objects fitted to call them into activity; and,
3dly, They may be excited to activity by an act of volition. When excited by the presentation of external objects, the objects are PERCEIVED, and this act is called PERCEPTION. Perception is the lowest degree of activity of these faculties; and if no idea is formed when the object is presented, the individual is destitute of the power of manifesting the faculty, whose function is to perceive objects of that kind. Thus, when tones are produced, he who cannot perceive the melody of them, is destitute of the power of manifesting the faculty of Tune. When a coloured object is presented, and the individual cannot perceive, so as to distinguish, the tints, he is destitute of the power of manifesting the faculty of colour. When the steps of an argument are logically and distinctly stated, he who cannot perceive the relation betwixt the steps, and the necessity of the conclusion, is destitute of the power of manifesting the faculty of Causality; and so on. Thus Perception is a mode of action of the faculties which form ideas, and implies the lowest degree of activity; but Perception is not a separate faculty.
This doctrine is not theoretical, but is clearly indicated
by facts. In the case mentioned by Mr HOOD*, a patient having lost the memory of words, yet enjoyed perception of their meaning. He understood language spoken by others, or, in other words, the organ of Language retained so much of its power as to enable him to perceive the meaning of words when presented to his mind, but so little of its energy as not to be adequate to the act of recalling words by an act of his will, so as to express his thoughts. The case of Mr FERGUSON + is another in point. He enjoyed so great a degree of the organ of Size as to enable him to perceive distance when natural scenery was presented to his mind, but so little as to be quite unable to recollect it, when the objects were withdrawn. Mr SLOANE ‡ is in a similar situation in regard to colouring. He perceives the differences of hues when they are presented to his eyes, but has so little of the organ that he does not recollect, so as to be able to name, them separately. Many persons are in a similar condition in regard to music; they perceive melody and enjoy it, when presented to the ear, but have so little of the faculty of Tune as to be unable to recal the notes after they have ceased to be heard. The same hold in regard to the reflecting powers. Many persons possess faculties acute and vigorous enough to perceive an argument, if placed before them, who are quite incapable of inventing it themselves.
Here, again, a highly valuable practical result presents itself. If we place a person with a forehead like FRASER'S, in whom the reflecting organs are deficient, in a situation, or apply to him for advice in circumstances, requiring great natural sagacity and depth of intellect, we shall assuredly be disappointed; whereas, if we apply to one having such a combination as Dr FRANKLIN, in whom reflection was very large, there will be much more of the instinctive capacity of tracing out beforehand the probable chain of Causation, and anticipating the effects of measures which we propose to follow. FRASER might shew good sense and sound judg