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Eventuality is surrounded by Individuality, Locality, Comparison and Causality, and forms individual conceptions from their combined intimations. A storm is not an object of specific existence, nor is it a quality of any external object; yet the mind clearly apprehends it. It is the result of physical elements in violent commotion, and all the faculties last enumerated, together with Eventuality itself, which observes motion, combine in furnishing individual conceptions, which Eventuality unites into one idea, designated by a "storm." Revolution is another example: A revolution does not exist in nature as a substantive thing, but arises from the combined action of numerous moral and physical causes, the result of which Eventuality conceives as one event.
It is interesting to observe the Phrenological System, which at first sight appears rude and unphilosophical, harmonizing thus simply and beautifully with nature. Had it been constructed by imagination or reflection alone, it is more than probable that the objection of the minor knowing faculties rendering Individuality and Eventuality superfluous, would have appeared so strong and insurmountable, as to have insured the exclusion of one or other as unnecessary; and yet, until both were discovered and admitted, the formation of such terms as those we have considered was altogether inexplicable.
GENUS IV.-REFLECTING FACULTIES.
THE intellectual faculties which we have considered, give a knowledge of objects and their qualities, and of events; those to which we now proceed, produce ideas of relation, or reflect. They minister to the direction and gratification of all the other powers; and constitute what we call Reason or Reflection.
Dr GALL often conversed on philosophical subjects with a sçavant, possessing much vivacity of mind. Whenever the latter was put to difficulty in proving rigorously his positions, he had always recourse to a comparison. By this means he in a manner painted his ideas, and his opponents were defeated and carried along with him; effects which he could never produce by simple argument. As soon as Dr GALL perceived that, in him, this was a characteristic trait of mind, he examined his head, and found an eminence of the form of a reversed pyramid in the upper and middle portion of the frontal bone. He confirmed the observation by many subsequent instances. He names it "perspicacity, sagacity, esprit de comparaison."
The faculty gives the power of perceiving resemblances and analogies. Tune may compare different notes; Colour contrast different shades; but Comparison may compare a Tint and a Note, a Form and a Colour, which the other faculties by themselves could not accomplish.
Comparison thus takes the widest range of nature within its sphere: "It compares," says Mr SCOTT," things of the most opposite kinds, and draws analogies, and perceives resemblances between them, often the most unexpected. It compares a light seen afar in a dark night, to a good deed shining in a naughty world; or it compares the kingdom of Heaven to a grain of mustard-seed. It discerns resemblances between things the most distant and the most opposite. It finds analogies between the qualities of matter and mind;" and from these comparisons and analogies, a great part of our language, expressive of the qualities of mind, is drawn; "a great part of it being almost metaphorical, and applied originally in its literal sense to designate qualities of matter." For this reason, the language of every nation proves whether this organ is much or little developed
in the greatest number of its individuals. If they have this faculty in a high degree, their language is replete with figure. Dr MURRAY PATTERSON mentions that the Hindostanee language abounds in figures, and that Comparison is larger than Causality in the heads of the Hindoos in general. It is the origin of proverbs, which in general convey instruction under figurative expressions.
This faculty attaches us to comparison, without determining its kinds; for every one must choose his analogies from his knowledge, or from the sphere of activity of his other faculties. He who has the faculty of Locality in a high degree, derives thence his examples; while another, in whom Form predominates, will illustrate from it. Dr CHALMERS draws his illustrations from mechanics and astronomy; and the organs which take cognizance of these are large in his mask.
It was formerly supposed that this faculty takes cognizance only of resemblances, and that another discriminates differences; but, in treating of the faculty of Wit, p. 346, I have stated that perception of resemblance is the result of a lower, and discrimination of differences of a higher, degree of power in every intellectual faculty.
This faculty gives a tendency which is frequently called Reasoning, but which is very different from the correct and severe inductions of a sound logic; namely, it endeavours to prove that one thing is of such and such a nature, because it resembles another which is so and so; in short, it reasons by analogy, and is prone to convert an illustration into an argument. The late Mr LOGAN, the minister of Leith, is an example of this kind of intellect. He is always establishing a proposition, and, to those who do not analyze profoundly, appears to be an argumentative preacher; but his argument is not induction, it is a mere statement of analogies, closed by an inference that the case in point must be as he views it, otherwise it would be an exception to the ordinary arrangements of nature. The tendency of this faculty, when feeble, is to perceive only re
semblances, and not the differences of things; and, as a difference in one point out of a hundred frequently destroys the whole force of the analogy, no reasoning is so often false and superficial as that of persons in whom Comparison is the leading intellectual organ, but in whom nevertheless it is not large. The late Mr PLAYFAIR may be cited as an example in opposition to these. In him Causality was as large as Comparison, and his comparisons are merely illustrations. His argument, in general, stands in the relation of necessary consequence, and his conclusion is in the form of a direct deduction from his premises. This faculty is more rarely deficient than any of the other intellectual powers, and the Scripture is addressed to it in an eminent degree, being replete with analogies and comparisons.
This faculty, from giving readiness in perceiving analogies and resemblances, confers great instantaneous acuteness. The organ is largely developed in a neighbouring nation; and it is correctly observed by a late writer, that " ingenuity in discovering unexpected glimpses and superficial coincidences in the ordinary relations of life, the French possess in an eminent degree *." eminent degree*." In schools, the best scholars generally have much Language and Comparison. The faculty is of essential service to orators and popular preachers. It and Eventuality are the largest organs in the forehead of the late Right Honourable WILLIAM PITT. It is large also in the busts of CURRAN, CHALMERS, BURKE, and JEFFREY. In Mr T. MOORE it is very large, and in the Westminster Review, No. 8, it was remarked that there are two thousand five hundred similies in his Life of SHERIDAN, besides metaphors and allegorical expressions. Dr GALL correctly observes, that close reasoning and rigid induction, is always disagreeable to a popular audience, because their faculties are not cultivated or exercised to follow abstract conceptions. The great charm of popular
Edinburgh Review, Nov. 1820, p. 389.
speakers, therefore, consists in perspicuity of statement, and copiousness of illustration.
From giving power of illustration and command of figures, this faculty is of great importance to the poet, and it aids Wit also, by suggesting analogies. By common observers, indeed, the metaphors, amplifications, allegories, and ana logies, which Comparison supplies, are frequently mistaken for the products of Ideality, although they are very different.
Ideality being a sentiment, when greatly excited, infuses passion and enthusiasm into the mind, and prompts it to soar after the splendid, the beautiful, and the sublime, as objects congenial to its constitution*. Comparison, on the other hand, being an intellectual power, produces no passion, no intense feeling or enthusiasm; it coolly and calmly plays off its sparkling fire-works, and takes its direction from the other powers with which it is combined. is combined. If united with great Individuality and Causality in any individual, the comparisons employed will be copious, ingenious, and appropriate; but if Ideality is not large, they will not be impassioned, elevated and glowing. Add to Comparison, again, a large Ideality, as in Dr CHALMERS, and its similies will now twinkle in delicate loveliness like a star, now blaze in meridian splendour like the sun, while intense feeling and lofty enthusiasm will give strength and majesty to all its conceptions.
It is large in RAPHAEL, ROSCOE, EDWARDS, HENRI QUATRE, Mr HUME, Hindoos; deficient in Charibs.
Hitherto the function of this organ has been considered as limited to a perception of general resemblance and dif
It is under the influence of Ideality, that
"The poet's eye, in a fine frenzy rolling,
Doth glance from Heaven to Earth, from Earth to Heaven;
And as imagination bodies forth,
The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen
Turns them to shapes, and gives to airy nothing