When she said he was sixty, he answered in the affirma-, tive, and inquired what "time" it was; but as I did not comprehend his meaning distinctly, I mentioned to him the hour of the day, when he soon convinced me that I had not given him the proper answer. I then named the day of the week, which was also unsatisfactory; but, upon mentioning the month, and day of the month, he immediately signified, that this was what he wanted to know, in order to answer my question respecting his age. Having succeeded in getting the day of the month, he then pointed out the "time" or day of the month on which he was born, and thereby gave me to understand that he was sixty years of age, and five days or "times," times," as he expressed


In the month of December 1822, his convalescence was so complete, that he could support conversation without much difficulty. The headachs, with which he had been so long affected, recurred occasionally; but in other respects he enjoyed, generally, tolerably good health. On 10th January 1825, he suddenly became paralytic on the left side. On 17th August he had an attack of apoplexy, and on 21st he expired. In the Phrenological Journal, vol. iii. p. 28, Mr Hood has reported the dissection of his brain. In the left hemisphere, lesion of the parts was found, which terminated" at half an inch from the surface of the brain, where it rests over the middle of the super-orbitar plate." Two small depressions or cysts were found in the substance of the brain, "and the cavity, considered as a whole, expanded from the anterior part of the brain till it opened into the ventricle in the form of a trumpet." The right hemisphere did not present any remarkable appearance."

Dr SPURZHEIM mentions having seen, at Inverness, a case closely resembling the foregoing; and also one of the same nature at Paris. Dr GALL also cites the case of a notary recorded by PINEL, who, after an attack of apoplexy, had forgot his own name, and that of his wife,

children and friends, although his tongue preserved all its mobility. He could no longer read or write, but nevertheless remembered objects which had formerly made an impression on his senses, and which related to his profession. He frequently pointed out with his finger the files which contained documents that could not be found, and indicated, by other signs, that he preserved the former train of his ideas entire *. Dr GALL mentions also the case of a soldier sent to him by Baron LARREY, whom he found to be very nearly in the same condition as the notary mentioned by PINEL. "It was not his tongue," says he, which was the source of his embarrassment," for he was able to move it with great agility, and to pronounce even a great number of isolated words. It was not his memory either which was in fault, for he shewed evident dissatisfaction with himself upon many subjects which he wished to mention. The only faculty in him which was impaired, was that of speech. This soldier, like the patient of M. PINEL, is no longer capable of reading or writ ing t.

Some individuals in whom Language is large, state as an objection that they have a bad memory of names; but they will be found in general to have a deficient memory of the objects which the names indicate; for example, if they cannot recollect names of persons, they will have deficient Form and Individuality; and if they cannot recollect names of tunes, they will be deficient in Tune. The defect lies in the faculty which apprehends and recollects the primitive idea, for which Language recollects the name; and it is quite conceivable, that although Language may be powerful, yet it may not furnish names, as mere words, when the thing signified is not present in the mind.

The lower animals appear to have this organ in some degree; for they learn the meaning of arbitrary signs in so

• PINEL sur l'Aliénation mentale, 2de édition, p. 105.
+ Physiologie du Cerveau, vol. iv. p. 84.

far as they possess the feelings and conceptions which they


This faculty is by far too extensively cultivated in ordinary education. The notion seems generally to prevail, that knowledge of words necessarily implies comprehension of the ideas which they are intended to signify; but this is a great mistake. A good education must embrace the cultivation of all the faculties, by exercising each directly on its own objects, and regulating its manifestations. The mere storing the mind with words never can accomplish these ends.

The organ is large in the companion of GALL, Sir J. E. SMITH, HUMBOLDT, VOLTAIRE; and small in the mask of FRASER.-Established.


No objection to Phrenology is more frequently repeated than that such and such persons have retreating foreheads, and yet are very clever. A short explanation will serve to remove this difficulty. In the first place, a forehead may appear retreating, not because the reflecting organs are greatly deficient, but because the knowing organs are very prominently developed, so that if the latter were diminished in size, the former would appear relatively larger: But every one must perceive, that, in such an event, the mental powers of the perceptive class would be proportionally diminished, and the talents of the individual lessened, while the unskilful observer might imagine him to possess a better development of forehead. In the mask of HENRI QUATRE, for example, the forehead appears to slope; whereas, if the knowing organs were reduced to the same state of projection beyond the cheek bones, as in the mask of VOLTAIRE, the forehead would appear much more perpen

dicular. This, however, would clearly detract from his mental power. It would cause the reflecting faculties to predominate only, by diminishing his talent in the department of observation.


But, in the next place, suppose that a head does retreat exceedingly, still Individuality, and the other knowing organs, may be large; and if we attend for a moment to the range of these powers, we shall perceive, that the individual may be deficient in Causality and Comparison, and yet be very clever. A wide range of sciences, falling under the of Individuality and Eventuality chiefly, has already been pointed out, and in which a person so endowed may be very learned. Farther, the details of history, statistics, geography, and trade, all belong to the department of simple knowledge; and in them also he may be eminently skilled; and, finally, in the daily occurrences of life, acuteness of observation, and the power of treasuring up the lessons of experience which he will possess, are important elements in a practical judgment. If, then, to a large endowment of the knowing organs, a nervous temperament be added, the individual will be active and enterprising; if Cautiousness be large, he will be prudent, and rarely venture beyond the scope of his abilities; if Conscientiousness be large, he will enjoy that delicacy of sentiment which tells instinctively where the right lies, and where the path of honour terminates; and with these endowments there is no wonder that he may act creditably and cleverly in the ordinary walks of life. These are not imaginary suppositions; but descriptions drawn from observation of numerous individuals in active life. Such persons, however, are never distinguished for profound and comprehensive views of abstract principles; which belong to the reflecting faculties not yet treated of.

In the preceding pages, it is stated, that the faculty of Form perceives the forms of objects;-Colouring, their colour;-Size, their dimensions;-that Individuality takes cognizance of existences, and Eventuality of events in gene

ral. The question naturally occurs, if the minor knowing powers apprehend all the separate qualities of external objects, what purposes do Individuality and Eventuality serve in the mental economy? The function of Individuality is to form a single intellectual conception out of the different items of information communicated by the other knowing faculties, which take cognizance of the properties of external objects. In perceiving a tree, the object apprehended by the mind is not colour, form, and size, as separate qualities; but a single thing or being named a tree. The mind having, by means of Individuality, obtained the idea of a tree, as an individual existence, may analyze it, and resolve it into its constituent parts of form, colour, magnitude; but the contemplation of it in this manner is at once felt to be widely different from the conception attached to the word Tree as a whole. The function of Individuality, therefore, is to embody the separate elements furnished by these other knowing faculties into one, and to produce out of them conceptions of aggregate objects as a whole; which objects are afterwards viewed by the mind as individual existences, and are remembered and spoken of as such, without thinking of their constituent parts. Children early use and understand abstract terms, such as tree, man, ship; and the organ of Individuality is very prominently developed in them.

Farther, Form, Colour and Size, furnish certain elementary conceptions, which Individuality unites and conceives as one, such as Man. The faculty of Number called into action gives the idea of plurality; and that of Order furnishes the idea of gradations of rank and arrangement. Now, Individuality, receiving the intimations of all these separate faculties, combines them again, and contemplates the combination as an individual object, and this is an army. After the idea of an army is thus formed, the mind drops the recollection of the constituent parts, and afterwards thinks of the aggregate only, or of the combined conception formed by Individuality; and regards it as a single object.

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