depressed; the depression producing the appearance of a bag, or folding in the lower eye-lid. Persons possessing this form of eyes, he adds, have not only an excellent memory of words, but a particular talent for the study of languages, for criticism, and, in general, for all that has refe rence to literature *. Dr GALL states, at the same time, that the determination of the size of the organ of words is attended with much difficulty; as, from its situation, it may extend itself to the sides, as well as forwards, increasing, in the former case, the general breadth of the head across the temples, or even between the eyes; so that much remains to be ascertained in regard to it.

Dr SPURZHEIM, on the other hand, admits only one organ of Language, lying transversely on the posterior portion of the super-orbitary plates; and holds, that it takes cognizance both of words and the spirit of languages. "It seems to me," says he, "that the organ of words must have its laws as well as those of Colour, Melody, or any other faculty. Now, the law of words constitutes the spirit of language. I am satisfied," he continues, "that this opinion is correct; because the spirit of every language is the same, just as the essence of all kinds of music is alike; that is, the laws or principles of music and of language rule universally, and are constant; they are only modified in different nations, by modifications in their organs, and dissimilar combinations of these in each +."

I am disposed to coincide with Dr SPURZHEIM in this view; and, perhaps, by analyzing the source whence the structure of Language proceeds, we may obtain some light on the origin of a taste for the spirit of languages, as distinguished from the power of learning and recollecting words.

Language, then, expresses merely the feelings and conceptions formed by the various primitive faculties, acting separately, or in combination. Now, let us imagine the

• Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau, tome v. p. 18. and 30.
+ Phrenology, p. 288.

cerebral development of a nation to be distinguished by large organs of the Propensities, Sentiments, and Knowing Faculties, small Reflecting organs, and little Secretiveness. Their language being the spontaneous growth of such a combination, would naturally abound in words expressive of simple feelings, conceptions of individual objects, and their qualities; while it would be poor in terms of abstract relation, conceived by the faculties of reflection. For the same reason, the transitions of such a language would be like those in Mrs Quickly's speech, rapid, and in the order of the casual occurrence of the circumstances which excited the ideas; Secretiveness being small, there would naturally be little involution in the arrangement of the words. Suppose, on the other hand, that in another nation Secretiveness, and the Reflecting organs, predominated, the genius of their Language would differ widely from that of the people first described. Their expressions for discriminating individual conceptions would be fewer, while their stock of words and phrases, designative of abstract relation, would be more extensive, and the general structure of their sentences would be more involved. Now, suppose two individuals, with equal organs of Language, and consequently equal power of learning words, as mere signs, to possess, the one a head like the former, and the other a head like the latter people, and that they attempted to learn these different languages, it appears probable, that the one with the first mentioned development would find the genius of the first language the most easy and natural to him; he would acquire its forms of collocation, its niceties of designation, and all its prettinesses, with facility and delight, because they would coincide with the modes of feeling and thinking of his own mind. If, on the other hand, his attention were directed to the language of the second people, he would meet with greater difficulties. Although he might master the words, he would not find the idioms natural; and the forms of expression depending on the reflecting powers, and likewise the involution introduced by

Secretiveness, would appear to him extremely intricate and unintelligible; he would be obliged to learn them by rule, through defect of instinctive tact in apprehending them; and rules alone never produce a really excellent linguist. The second language, on the other hand, would come quite naturally to the other individual possessing a head like that of the people who invented it.

If these views be correct, the talent for learning the genius or spirit of different languages will depend upon the development of the organ of words, taken in conjunction with the power of the individual to enter into the feelings, and form the precise kinds of intellectual combinations, of different nations; or, in short, upon the capacity to go out of himself, and to enter into the mental states of others; and this is conferred chiefly by Secretiveness, Imitation, Individuality and Eventuality, aided of course by the other primitive faculties. This will be best understood by an example. If two individuals have an equal development of all the organs except the four now mentioned, which the one possesses in a high degree, and the other only to a very limited extent, the former will have a power of entering into the feelings and reflections of others, which the latter would want; and this power, according to the view now presented, would render him more apt in acquiring the spirit of different languages. This, however, is merely a theory, thrown out for the consideration of the reader, but it has been suggested by facts. I know an individual, who has an excellent development of many of the organs, but is a very decided character, and possesses little of the talent of entering into, or accommodating himself to the feelings of others, and he experienced an inconceivable difficulty in acquiring the simplest French idioms. I know another young gentleman who was in the same situation in regard to Latin, and who has little versatility. In them, the organ of Language is rather deficient; but then I have met with several persons in whom the organ was equally deficient, and who possessed the power of learning foreign

idioms; and in them, on the other hand, the power of amalgamation with the mental states of others, was decidedly greater, and their organs of Secretiveness, Imitation, Individuality and Eventuality, were larger.

Although the theory of the talent for philology is involved in considerable obscurity, it is quite certain that the ready command of words in speech or writing is in proportion to the development of the organ situated above the super-orbitar plate, and that a fluent orator or author is never found with a deficiency of it.

Numerous cases are on record of the power of using words having been impaired by disease, when the ability to articulate, and the powers of perception and judgment, remained entire. In the Phrenological Transactions, Mr HOOD of Kilmarnock has communicated a very interesting instance of this kind which fell under his own notice as medical attendant. The patient, a sober and regular man of 65 years of age, possessed of the ordinary knowledge of written and spoken language, on the evening of 2d September 1822, suddenly began to speak incoherently, and became quite unintelligible to all those who were about him. "It was discovered that he had forgotten the name of every object in nature. His recollection of things seemed to be unimpaired, but the names by which men and things are known, were entirely obliterated from his mind, or rather he had lost the faculty by which they are called up at the control of the will. He was by no means inattentive, however, to what was going on; and he recognised friends and acquaintances perhaps as quickly as on any former occasion; but their names, or even his own, or his wife's name, or the names of any of his domestics, appeared to have no place in his recollection.

"On the morning of the 4th September," says Mr HOOD, "much against the wishes of his family, he put on his clothes, and went out to the workshop; and, when I made my visit, he gave me to understand, by a variety of signs, that he was perfectly well in every respect, with the

exception of some slight uneasiness referrible to the eyes and eyebrows. I prevailed on him, with some difficulty, to submit to the reapplication of leeches, and to allow a blister to be placed over the left temple. He was now so well in bodily health that he would not be confined to the house; and his judgment, in so far as I could form an estimate of it, was unimpaired; but his memory for words was so much a blank, that the monosyllables of affirmation and negation seemed to be the only two words in the language, the use and signification of which he never entirely forgot. He comprehended distinctly every word which was spoken or addressed to him; and, though he had ideas adequate to form a full reply, the words by which these ideas are expressed seemed to have been entirely obliterated from his mind. By way of experiment, I would sometimes mention to him the name of a person or thing. His own name, for example, or the name of some one of his domestics,-when he would have repeated it after me distinctly, once or twice; but, generally, before he could do so a third time, the word was gone from him as completely as if he had never heard it pronounced. When any person read to him from a book, he had no difficulty in perceiving the meaning of the passage, but he could not himself then read; and the reason seemed to be, that he had forgotten the elements of written language, viz. the names of the letters of the alphabet. In the course of a short time, he became very expert in the use of signs; and his convalescence was marked by his imperceptibly acquiring some general terms, which were with him at first of very extensive and varied application. In the progress of his recovery, time and space came both under the general appellation of time. All future events and objects before him were, as he expressed it, "next time;" but past events and objects behind him were designated "last time." One day being asked his age, he made me to understand that he could not tell; but, pointing to his wife, uttered the words "many times" repeatedly, as much as to say that he had often told her his age.

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