with a volume, clearness, and strength of voice, and a facility of execution, which would have astonished any one who had seen her two days before, she sung in accompaniment till her musical faculty became spent and exhausted During this time the pain at the angles of the forehead was still felt, and was attended with a sense of fulness and uneasiness all over the coronal and anterior parts of the forehead. Regarding all these phenomena as arising from over-excitement chiefly of the organs of Tune, I directed the continued local application of cold, and such other measures as tended to allay the increased action, and soon after the young lady regained her ordinary state, and has not since had any return of these extraordinary symp


"In this case, the order in which the phenomena occurred, put leading queries on my part, or exaggeration or deception on the part of the patient, alike out of the question. The pain in the organ was distinctly and repeatedly complained of for many hours (at least 36) BEFORE the first night of dreaming, and for no less than three days before the irresistible waking inspiration was felt. When my attention was first drawn to the existence of the pain, I imagined it to arise from an affection of the membranes cover. ing that part of the brain, and had no conception that it was to terminate in any such musical exhibition as afterwards took place; and, in fact, although the young lady had mentioned her previous melodious dreams, my surprise was quite equal to, although, thanks to Phrenology, my alarm was not so great as, that of her relations, when, on entering the house on the morning of Tuesday, the 25th, I heard the sound of the guitar mingling with the full and harmonious swell of her own voice, such as it might shew itself when in the enjoyment of the highest health and vigour."

Dr SPURZHEIM mentions, that the heads and skulls of birds which sing, and of those which do not sing, and the heads of the different individuals of the same kind, which

have a greater or less disposition to sing, present a conspicuous difference at the place of this organ. The heads of males, for instance, and those of females of the same kind of singing birds, are easily distinguished by their different development. The organ is large in HAYDN, MACVICAR; small in SLOANE, and remarkably deficient in ANN ORMEROD. This girl was admitted, at twelve years of age, into the asylum for the blind at Liverpool, and during two years, means were unsparingly employed to cultivate and improve any musical talent which she might possess, but "with such decided want of success, that her teachers, Mr HANDFORD and Mr PLATT, men of unceasing perseverance, and constantly accustomed to the most stubborn perverseness, were at last under the necessity of abandoning the attempt altogether."-Phren. Journ. vol. ii. p. 642. The figure represents her head, the organ of Tune being thrown into the outline on her left side, and the head of HANDEL, the organ being brought into line on his right side.-Established.

[merged small][subsumed][merged small][graphic][merged small]


THE history of the discovery of this organ has already been given in the introduction, page 48.

A large development of this organ is indicated by the prominence and depression of the eyes, this appearance being produced by convolutions of the brain, situated in the posterior and transverse part of the upper orbitary plate, pressing the latter, and with it the eyes, more or less: forward, downward or outward, according to the size of

the convolutions. If the fibres be long, they push the eye as far forward as the eyebrows; if they are only thick, they push them toward the outer angle of the orbit, and downwards *. When the knowing organs are very large, and the eyebrows project, the eyes may appear less prominent than they really are. The projection of the eyes over the cheek-bone, and their depression downwards, are the proper signs of the organs being large.

The functions of this organ will be understood by a short elucidation. The different faculties being active, produce desires, emotions, and intellectual conceptions. The mind wishing to communicate a knowledge of these to other individuals, can accomplish this end only by making signs expressive of their existence. These signs may consist of the peculiar gestures, looks, and cries, that naturally accompany the activity of the several faculties, and which being part of our constitution, are universally understood, and constitute what is termed natural Language; for example, nature has formed an association betwixt the external appearance of misery, and the faculty of Benevolence, so that, on the presentation of the appearance, the faculty starts into activity, and generates the emotion of pity: She has associated the faculty of Wit with external objects, so that, on the presentment of certain circumstances, laughter is instantaneously excited. These signs require only to be presented, and they are understood in all countries, and by all nations.

But mankind possess the power of inventing and esta blishing arbitrary signs to express their feelings and conceptions. For example, the words Love, Compassion, and Justice, are mere conventional signs, by which we in Britain agree to express thrée internal feelings or sentiments of the mind; and there is no natural connexion betwixt the signs and the things signified. The metaphysicians might attribute this power to Association; but we observe it to

The organ of Form produces only distance between the eyes; without rendering them prominent, or pushing them downward.

belong to the faculty of Language. Persons possessing this faculty strongly, have a great natural power of inventing arbitrary signs, and of learning the use of them, when invented by others. But this faculty gives the capacity of learning the signs alone, and the meaning of them is acquired by other faculties: If a horse, for instance, is presented to the mind, the faculty of Language gives the desire to find a name or sign, by which to indicate the conception of it, and also the power of associating the appearance of the object, with the sound or name when invented. But the meaning or signification which the word will embrace, will depend on the perfection of other faculties. For example, the faculty of Form will judge of the form of the horse; Size, of its dimensions; Colouring, of its colour. Now, a blind man, by aid of the faculty of Language, may learn to connect his own notions of a horse with the sound of the name; but it is obvious that his conceptions must be very different from those attached to it by a person who sees; for the blind man could not judge of its colour at all, and not very correctly of its form and size. In the same way, any one having the faculty of Language, may learn the occasions and manner in which the word justice is generally used; but how imperfect must be the meaning attached to it, in the mind of a person like DAVID HAGGART, who was extremely deficient in the organ of Conscientiousness, compared with the notion attending it in the mind of a person in whom that organ is extremely large?

Every metaphysical author complains of the ambiguity of words, and shews how the vagueness of their signification retards the progress of moral and intellectual science; and the exposition now given shews whence this vagueness arises. Before individuals can attach precisely the same conceptions to words expressing feelings and judgments of the understanding, they require to possess a similar combination of faculties, so as to be capable of feeling and judging alike; and as no two individuals do possess exactly si

milar combination of faculties, so as to be capable of feeling and judging alike; and as no two individuals do possess exactly similar combinations, there will be shades of difference in the meaning attached by different persons to such terms, in spite of every effort to define them. In consequence of this difference in faculties, the very definition itself is differently apprehended. In mathematics and algebra, the things indicated by the signs are not feelings, which vary in every individual, but proportions and relations of space and quantity, which have a fixed and abstract existence, and which, if apprehended at all, can be conceived only in one way. Hence the precision of the Language of these sciences compared with that of metaphysics or moral philosophy.

If these principles be correct, they demonstrate the impossibility of framing a philosophical language, applicable, with perfect precision, to moral disquisitions. To apprehend the very definitions of the words, we must be able to experience the sentiments which they are intended to indicate; and many persons are capable of doing so only in a very imperfect degree. In attending to the style of an author, he will be found to use those words with most precision and felicity, which express mental feelings or operations naturally vigorous in himself. Mr STEWART, for example, writes with great beauty and correctness in narrative, and on every topic connected with moral sentiment; but his style becomes loose and inaccurate when he enters upon original abstract discussion, requiring the activity of the higher intellectual powers. I infer from this, that, in him, the knowing and sentimental organs were more amply developed than those of reflection. MOORE uses epithets and illustrations, expressive of attachment, with great frequency and inimitable beauty; and we may conclude, that, in him, Adhesiveness, which gives such feelings, is very strong. JOHN BELLINGHAM, on the other hand, in his voluminous memorials, petitions and letters, was continually writing about justice and injustice, about cruelty and oppres



« VorigeDoorgaan »