ledge. It is essential to editors, secretaries, historians and teachers. By knowing the functions of the other powers, this faculty contributes essentially to the unity of Consciousness. It seems to perceive the impressions, which are the immediate functions of the external senses, and to change these into notions or ideas. Moreover, it appears to be essential to attention in general, and to the recognition of the entity myself in philosophy. Its sphere of activity is very great, and every philosophic system has taken account of some of its operations *."

Dr GALL regarded the part of the brain here named Eventuality, as the organ of " the sense" of things in man, and of educability or perfectibility, in the lower animals. While he admits that every faculty is susceptible of improvement by education, he forms a scale of the heads of animals, from the crocodile and frog up to man, with the view of proving, that the more this part of the brain is developed in each species, the higher are its natural susceptibilities of being tamed and taught. CAMPER and LAVATER, he adds, had made similar observations; but they did not distinguish special faculties and organs. Dr SPURZHEIM acknowledges the correctness of the facts stated by Dr GALL, that tame animals have fuller foreheads than wild ones, and that animals are generally tameable, in proportion to the development of their foreheads; but conceives, that Dr GALL attributes to a single faculty, manifestations which depend on intellect generally. Eventuality does not fill the whole forehead; and the other organs, situated there, also contribute to the effects observed by Dr GALL. The ob servation of the latter, therefore, is deficient in precision, rather than in truth. Dr GALL regarded the organ of Benevolence, in the lower animals, as the source of gentleness of disposition, and described it as situated in them in the middle of the upper part of the forehead. The organ

* Phrenology, p. 283.

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of Educability, which is distinct, he says, is situated in the middle of the lower part of the forehead.

The older metaphysicians do not treat of any faculty distinctly analogous to Eventuality; but Dr THOMAS BROWN*, whose acuteness I have so often praised, admits a power of the mind under the name of "Simple Suggestion," which corresponds very closely with it; and he reduces Conception and Memory of the metaphysicians to this principle of Simple Suggestion.-The organ is established.

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31. TIME.

THE power of conceiving Time, and of remembering circumstances connected by no link, but the relation in which they stand to each other in chronology, and also the power of observing time in performing music, is very different in different individuals. Many observations have been made on this organ; and it is now ascertained. The special faculty seems to be the power of judging of time, and of intervals in general. By giving the perception of measured cadence, it appears to be one source of pleasure in dancing. It is essential to music and versification.

Mr SIMPSON, in an excellent essay on this faculty, published in the Phrenological Journal†, states, that "We have found the organ largely developed in those who shew an intuitive knowledge of the lapse of minutes and hours, so as to name the time of the day, without having recourse to the clock; and also in those who perceive those minuter divisions, and their harmonious relations, which constitute rhythm, and who, when they apply the tact to music, are called good timists, a distinct power from that of the mere melodist, and often wanting in him; while it is matter of the commonest observation, on the other hand, that

Lectures, vol. ii. p. 192.

+ Vol. ii. p. 134.

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this sensibility to rhythm, called Time, is marked in those who have a very moderate perception of melody. Such persons are invariably accurate dancers, observing delicately the time, though indifferent to the melody of the violin. We have made many observations, both in persons who have both Time and Tune large, and in those who have only one of them in large endowment, and we have never found the manifestations fail. Very lately we were struck with the uncommon prominence of the organ of Time in a whole family of young people, and inquired whether or not they danced with accuracy, and loved dancing? We were answered, that they did both in a remarkable degree; and, as we lived near them for some weeks, we observed that dancing was a constant and favourite pastime of theirs, even out of doors. Their dancing-master informed us, that the accuracy of their time exceeded that of any pupils he had ever taught. There was thus evident in these young persons an intense pleasure in accurate rhythmical movements."

The fact that many Deaf and Dumb persons dance with precision, and much pleasure, is thus accounted for by Mr SIMPSON. "That Time," says he, "may be marked with the utmost precision to the eye, is a fact familiar to every one who has seen a regiment of soldiers go through the manual and platoon exercise, without a single word of command, by obeying the movements of the fugle-man, who gives the time to the eye; and who that has seen this done by a practised corps, is ignorant that there is great pleasure in witnessing the exquisitely timed movements of the exercise? Now, suppose a dancer, unaided by music, were to keep his eye on any person or object which was marking dancing-time to his sight, it cannot be doubted that he could dance to it. A deaf person could perform the manual exercise from the time given by the fugle-man; and just as easily could a deaf person dance with his eye upon the violin-bow, or the player's arm, or on the movement of the drumsticks.

"It is unnecessary to go farther, and shew that the sense of touch may be the channel through which the organ of Time is excited, as well as the sense of hearing and sight. No one will dispute that a soldier could perform the manual exercise to a succession of taps on the shoulder; and to time, in the same way given, might a person dance.

"What we have said is confirmed by fact. It is well known that the deaf and dumb do dance, taking the time by the eye, either from the violin-player's arm, or at second hand, but instantaneously from the other dancers. We are acquainted with a young lady and gentleman in England, both of rank, who are deaf and dumb, and who, in addition to many other accomplishments, dance with the greatest grace and precision."-See also Phren. Journal, vol. iv. p. 509.

The origin of the notion of Time has greatly puzzled the metaphysicians. Lord KAMES says, that we measure it by the number of ideas which pass in the mind; but experience contradicts this supposition, for time never appears so short as when ideas are most numerous, and pass most rapidly through the mind. The idea, that it depends on a separate faculty and organ, on the other hand, is in harmony with this fact; for, as the organ of Time may remain inactive, while the others are vividly excited, it follows, that our perceptions of duration will, on such occasions, be indistinct, and time will, in consequence, appear brief.

32. TUNE.

DR GALL mentions, that a girl named BIANCHI, of about five years of age, was presented to him, and he was asked for what talent she was most distinguished. He discovered in her no indication of an extraordinary memory; and the idea had not then occurred to him, that the talent for music could be recognised by the conformation of the head. Indeed, he had not at that time ascertained the different kinds of memory; but his friends nevertheless maintained, that

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the young BIANCHI had an extraordinary memory for music, and, as he had not discovered that talent in her, they inferred that the doctrine which he taught of external signs for different kinds of memory was unfounded. This child repeated whatever she heard sung or played on the piano, and recollected whole concerts if she had heard them only twice. Dr GALL asked if she learned every thing by heart with equal facility, but he was told that she possessed this astonishing memory in music alone. He concluded that a well marked difference exists between memory for music, and the other kinds of memory with which he was then acquainted, and that every kind has its distinct organ. He prosecuted his observations with fresh ardour, and at last discovered that the talent for music is connected with the organ now under discussion. He calls it, "Le sens des rapports des tons;" expression," says Dr GALL, "qui

rattache la manière dont l'intellect du musicien met en œuvre les rapports des tons à la manière d'agir des sens en général."

The organ of Tune bears the same relation to the ears, which the organ of Colour does to the eyes. The ear receives the impressions of sounds, and is agreeably or disagreeably affected by them; bu. the ear has no recollection of tones, nor does it judge of their relations; it does not perceive the harmonies of sound; and sounds, as well as colours, may be separately pleasing, though disagreeable in combination. A friend, in a letter written from India, formerly quoted, says, "Melody is the pleasure arising from successions of simple sounds suited to each other. Harmony is that arising from combined sounds, or from several striking the ear simultaneously, as in a band playing different parts. The former requires much less of the organ than the latter; and hence the Scotch with no great Tune are melodists, but nothing as musicians."

A great development of the organ enlarges the lateral parts of the forehead; but its form varies according to the direction and form of the convolutions. Dr SPURZHEIM

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