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Dr SPURZHEIM mentions, that "certain races of Negroes make five the extent of their enumeration, that is, they count only as far as five by simple terms; they say, "fiveone, five-two, five-three," &c. "Negroes in general," he continues, “do not excel in arithmetic and numbers; and, accordingly, their heads are narrow in the seat of the organ of Number." HUMBOLDT also mentions that the Chaymas (a people in the Spanish parts of South America) "have great difficulty in comprehending any thing that belongs to numerical relations;" and that "the more intelligent count in Spanish with an air that denotes a great effort of mind, so far as 30, or perhaps 50;" and he adds, that "the corner of the eye is sensibly raised up towards the temple."
Dr GALL mentions, that two of his acquaintances felt pain in the region of this organ, after being occupied for several days in succession with difficult calculations. In the Hospital of Vienna, he saw a patient whose insanity degenerated into idiocy, but who nevertheless occupied himself solely with counting. He stopped, however, regularly at ninety-nine; could never be induced to say one hundred, and recommenced counting at one. M. L. A. GELIS, in his Treatise on Acute and Chronic Hydrocephalus, mentions the case of a boy, who, though stupid in every other respect, still manifested, in his twelfth year, an astonishing memory for numbers, and a strong feeling of Benevolence; which qualities, however, he adds, disappeared in proportion as his malady, hydrocephalus, increased.
It seems difficult to determine whether this faculty exists in the lower animals or not. GEORGE LE Roy states from observation, that magpies count three; while DUPONT DE NEMOURS asserts that they count nine: Dr GALL does not decide the question.
The organ is established.
ORDER supposes a plurality of objects; but one may have ideas about a number of things and their qualities, without considering them in any order whatever. Every arrangement of external articles is not equally agreeable to the mind; and the capacity of being delighted with order, and distressed by disorder, is not in proportion to the endowment of any other faculty. There are individuals who are martyrs to the love of order, who are distressed beyond measure by the sight of confusion, and highly satisfied when every thing is well arranged. These persons have the organ in question large. The sort of arrangement, however, imposed by this faculty, is different from, although perhaps one element in, that philosophical method which is the result of the perception of the relations of things. The faculty of which we here speak, gives method and order in arranging objects, as they are physically related; but philosophical or logical inferences, the conception of systematising or generalizing, and the idea of classifications, are formed by the reflecting faculties. Dr SPURZHEIM mentions, that the Sauvage de l'Aveyron at Paris, though an idiot in a very high degree, cannot bear to see a chair, or any other object out of its place; and as soon as any thing is deranged, he, without being excited to it, directly replaces it. He saw also in Edinburgh a girl, who, in many respects, was idiotic, but in whom the love of order was very active. She avoided her brother's apartment, in consequence of the confusion which prevailed in it.
Dr GALL mentions, that he has met with facts which strongly indicate, that "order" depends on a primitive faculty; but that, on account of the difficulty of observing the organs placed in the superciliary ridge, and the small size of this organ in particular, as pointed out by Dr SPURZHEIM, he has not been able to collect a sufficiency
of determinate facts to authorise him to decide on its situation *.
I have seen several instances in confirmation of this organ. A gentleman of this city, whose mask is sold as an illustration of " order," has a large development of it; and his perception of symmetrical arrangement is exceedingly acute. On each superciliary ridge of this cast, there is an elevation resembling a small pea, which is frequently mistaken for the organ; that, however, appears to be merely a projecting point of the frontal bone, to which some fibres of the temporal muscle are attached. The development of the organ is indicated by a great fulness, producing a square appearance at the external angles of the lower part of the forehead. I have seen other cases, in which that part of the brain was very small, and the love of order was extremely deficient. On the whole, therefore, I am disposed to admit the organ as ascertained. The organ is large in the mask marked "French M. D.," and in HUMBOLDT, brother of the traveller.
THIS organ, when large, gives prominence or rounded fulness to the middle of the forehead.
22. Individuality large.
22. Individuality large.
After Dr GALL had discovered an external sign of the talent for learning by heart, he was not long in perceiving that it by no means indicated every species of memory. He
Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau, tom. iv. p. 467.
observed, that, among his school-fellows, some excelled in verbal memory, and remembered even words which they did not understand; while others were deficient in this qualification, but recollected with uncommon facility facts and events; that some were distinguished by a great memory of places; some were able to repeat, without mistake, a piece of music which they had heard only once or twice, while others excelled in recollecting numbers and dates; but no individual possessed all of these talents combined in himself. Subsequently to these observations, he learned that philosophers before him had arrived at similar conclusions, and had distinguished three varieties of memory,— memory of things, "memoria realis;" verbal memory, “memoria verbalis ;" and memory of places, " memoria localis." In society, he observed persons who, though not always profound, were learned, had a superficial knowledge of all the arts and sciences, and knew enough to be capable of speaking on them with facility; and he found in them the middle of the lower part of the forehead very much developed. At first he regarded this as the organ of the memory of things;" but, on farther reflection, he perceived, that the name "memory of things" does not include the whole sphere of activity of the organ now under consideration. He observed, that persons who had this part of the brain large, possessed not only a great memory for facts, but were distinguished by prompt conception in general, and an extreme facility of apprehension; a strong desire for information and instruction; a disposition to study all branches of knowledge, and to teach these to others; and also, that, if not restrained by the higher faculties, such persons were naturally prone to adopt the opinions of others, to embrace new doctrines, and to modify their own minds according to the manners, customs, and circumstances with which they were surrounded. He therefore rejected the name," memory of things," and he adopted the appellations "Sens des choses, sens d'educabilité, de perfectibilité;" to distinguish this faculty.
These observations of Dr GALL apply chiefly to the part of the brain now designated by Eventuality; he did not treat of Individuality as a separate organ; and in his plates it is left without mark or number.
The function of this faculty is to take cognisance of motion or active phenomena, indicated by verbs. In such expressions as the ROCK falls, the HORSE gallops, the BATTLE is fought, the substantive springs from Individuality, and the verb from Eventuality. It prompts to investigation by ex-periment, while Individuality leads to observation. Individuality gives the tendency to personify abstract ideas, such as Ignorance or Wisdom; and Eventuality to represent them as acting. In a work written by an author with whom I was acquainted, and in whom both of these organs were large, Ignorance and Common-sense were represented as personages who addressed the people, excited them to action, and themselves performed a variety of parts; Ignorance "stole a march on Common-sense," who by dexterous expedients extricated himself from the difficulty. An author in whom Individuality is large and Eventuality small, will treat his subjects by description chiefly; and one in whom Eventuality is large and Individuality small, will narrate actions, but deal little in physical description.
SHERIDAN possessed both organs large, with those of Size and Locality amply developed ; and the following passage affords an example of the prominence which the physical appearances of objects obtain in his composition. Speaking of a woman and her husband, he says, "Her fat arms are strangled with bracelets, which belt them like corded brawn. You wish to draw her out as you would an opera-glass.-A long lean man, with all his arms rambling, no way to reduce him to compass, unless you could double him up like a pocket rule.-With his arms spread he'd lie on the bed of ware, like a cross on a Good Friday bun.If he stands cross-legged, he looks like a caduceus, and put him in a fencing attitude, you would take him for a chevau-de-frise,-to make any use of him, it must be as a