easily, has a complete mental consciousness of the powers of Form and Size being different, and of the one being strong and the other weak in her mind.

The frontal sinus throws a difficulty in the way of observing this organ; and the negative evidence is, therefore, chiefly relied on.

It is stated as only probable.


THERE seems to be no analogy between the weight or resistance of bodies, and their other qualities. They may be of all forms, sizes, and colours, liquid or solid, and yet none of these features would necessarily imply that one was heavier than the other. This quality, therefore, being distinct from all others, we cannot logically refer the cognisance of it to any of the faculties of the mind which judge of the other attributes of matter; and, as the mental power undoubtedly exists, there appears reason to conjecture that it may be manifested by means of a special organ. Persons who excel at archery and quoits, also those who find great facility in judging of momentum and resistance in mechanics, are observed to possess the parts of the brain lying nearest to the organ of Size largely developed; and the organ is now regarded as probable. STATICS, or that branch of mathematics which considers the motion of bodies arising from gravity, probably belongs to it. Persons in whom Individuality, Size, Weight, and Locality, are large, have generally a talent for engineering, and those branches of mechanics which consist in the application of forces; they delight in steam-engines, water-wheels, and turning-laths. The same combination occurs in persons distinguished for successful execution of difficult feats in skating; in which the regulation of equilibrium is an important element. Constructiveness, when Weight is small,

leads to rearing still fabrics, rather than to fabricating working machinery.

Mr SIMPSON published in the Phrenological Journal (vol. ii. p. 410.) an interesting and ingenious Essay on this organ, in which he enumerates a great number of examples, in proof of its functions. It is large, says he, in Dr CHALMERS, Dr BREWSTER, Sir JAMES HALL, Sir GEORGE MACKENZIE, Professor LESLIE, and in Mr JARDINE and Mr STEVENSON, two eminent engineers. "We have lately seen," he continues, "Professor FARISH of Cambridge, who manifests a high endowment of mechanical skill, and has the organ large; as has Mr WHEWELL of the same University, who has written a work of merit on the same subject. In a visit we lately made to Cambridge, we saw much that was interesting in regard to this organ. Professor FARISH'S son inherits the mechanical turn and the organ. We saw both the statue and bust of Sir ISAAC NEWTON, by RUBILLIAC. The bust was a likeness taken in the prime of his years, and in it the knowing organs are still more prominent than in the statue. Weight is very pre-eminent. The same organ is very large in the bust of the lamented Dr. CLARKE, the traveller; and, as might have been expected, Locality quite extraordinarily developed *. We met with several persons with small Weight, who at once acknowledged deficiency in mechanical talent, and awkwardness

In the numerous living heads we saw at Cambridge, we met often with the organ of Number large, and found, invariably, that it was accompanied in the individual with algebraic celebrity. The organization generally corresponded to the cause of the person's rank in the University; and, although there were exceptions, most of the persons who have achieved honours, evidently owe them to the great power of their knowing organs;-clearly shewing, that those who were also gifted with deeply reflecting and combining powers, are not called to use them either in classical or mathematical studies. Many men, on the contrary, have figured in public life, in virtue of their great endowment of Causality and Comparison, who, from a smaller gift of the knowing organs, have held a very humble grade at Oxford and Cambridge.

in their actions and movements. A child of two years old was mentioned to us, although we did not see it, quite remarkable to every one for the large development of brain at this part of the frontal bone, and for the uncommon steadiness of its walk, at an age when other children totter, and it is the theme of wonder to all who know it." The organ is large in the mask of MACLAUCHLAN, a weaver of Saltcoats, who spent much time and money in devising means to regulate the stroke of the common pump, so as to make the working-rod move with the same momentum up and down. It is large also in the mask of BRUNEL, the celebrated engineer and mechanician. In examining masks, a depression of muscle, which sometimes takes place at this part, must not be mistaken for a fulness of the organ.

Mr SIMPSON proceeds: "The faculty now under consideration, in high endowment, manifests itself in engineering, in dynamical skill, in the knowledge and application of mechanical forces. What may be its lesser endowments? Where do we find the organ? Situated in the midst of that group, which gives us the perception of the qualities of material objects; namely, Form, Size, Locality, Colouring, Order, and Number. It is evident there is a quality of bodies most essential to their nature, not included in these qualities, singly or combined; namely, their density and corresponding weight. As bodies gravitate in a well-known ratio to their density, and their density and weight are the same thing, Weight is only one name for gravitation. Does it then serve any important purpose in our being, or is it essential to our animal existence, that we should have an instinctive perception of gravitation, operating constantly and independently of reason? That state of rest which the law of gravitation constitutes the natural state of all bodies, solid, fluid, and aëriform, is called their Equilibrium. The simplest animal motions, what are they but alternate disturbance and restoration of equilibrium?"—" The land-animal walks and runs, and avails itself of the resistance of the earth,-the bird flies by


its instinctive perception of the resistance of the air,—the fish uses its fins and tail, instinctively perceiving the resistance of the water."


"Some degree, therefore, of the power of adapting motions to the law of gravitation, some power over equilibrium, must be possessed by the whole animated creation, -for without it, it is plain, they must perish. May the organ of Weight be the organ of this faculty? To man alone is given the capacity to aid this power, and render his motion more effectual, and force more availing by the use of instruments, and FRANKLIN well named him a toolmaking, or rather a tool-using animal. What are his tools? They are all modifications of the elementary mechanical powers. His club and bow are levers,-his axe, knife, sword, and arrow, are wedges. He instinctively aids his own muscular force by the lever, when he applies a bar of wood to raise a stone from the ground;-if he wishes to raise that stone to a certain height, perpendicularly, he will instinctively counteract its gravitation by forcing it up an inclined plane, instead of applying his own bodily force to lift it perpendicularly. The principle of the pulley will suggest itself whenever he has obtained a block with a cord, or thong, to draw water out of a pit. The screw is only the inclined plane wrapt spirally round a cylinder; to avail himself of which he would be led, whenever he attempted, as he early did, to build a tower."

These views, says Mr SIMPSON, are strongly supported by diseased affections of this part of the brain. Miss S. L. was attacked with headach, and pain in the region of the organ of Weight, "her perception of equilibrium was deranged, and she experienced giddiness, inclined position of horizontal floors and ceilings, and the sensation of being lifted up, and of again falling down and forward. Her account of it is worthy of remark, for she said she felt as if she had been tipsy." Mr SIMPSON refers to a diseased condition of this, and some other of the knowing organs, a curious mental affection, which Mr JOHN HUNTER, the

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celebrated anatomist, experienced in 1776, and which is recorded in his life, written by Sir EVERARD HOME. "From great anxiety of mind," says he, "Mr H. had a severe illness. It attacked him on a journey, and his first sensation, it is well worthy of remark, was that of having drunk too much, although he had taken nothing but a little weak punch. On going to bed, he felt as if suspended in the air, and soon after the room seemed to go round with very great rapidity. This ceased, but the strange sensation, like Miss S. L.'s, of being lifted up, continued; and, on being brought home in his carriage, his sensation was that of sinking or going down. The symptoms of whirling and suspension increased; and his own head, when he raised it from his pillow, seemed to move from him to some distance with great velocity. When he became able to stand without being giddy, he was unable to walk without support; "for," says Sir E. HOME," his own feelings did not give him information respecting his centre of gravity, so that he was unable to balance his body, and prevent himself from falling." We need not add, continues Mr SIMPSON, the obvious comment, that the organ of Weight was diseased, and the very function we have imputed to it, the instinct of equilibrium (expressed almost in our own words by Sir E. HOME), unequivocally impeded *.

The phenomena of intoxication are explained by Mr SIMPSON in a similar way. "Both Miss S. L. and Mr JOHN HUNTER," says he, " bore testimony to the illusive feeling of being intoxicated, while Miss S. L. had acute pain in the organ of the instinct or power of preserving the balance, and maintaining an upright posture. But for an innate, steady, and never-failing perception of equilibrium, animal movements would be only staggering and tumbling. The intoxicated soon lose a steady gait, fall down, see perpendiculars at other angles, believe the floor itself perpendicular, and grasp the ground to save themselves from fall

• Phrenological Journal, vol. ii. p. 302.

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