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ed to credit the assertion? He would have the utmost difficulty in believing it, and would say that if such were the fact, the brain must form an exception to a law which appears general over organized nature; and yet the phrenologists have been assailed with every species of vituperation, for maintaining that the brain does not form an exception to this general law, but that in it also vigour of function is in proportion to size, other conditions being equal. I shall proceed to shew some evidence in proof of this fact; but the reader is requested to observe that I am here expounding only general principles in an introductory discourse. The conditions and modifications under which these principles fall to be applied in practice, will be stated in a subsequent chapter.
First, The brain of a child is small, and its mental vigour weak, compared with the brain and mental vigour of an adult *. Secondly, Small size in the brain is an invariable cause of idiocy. Phrenologists have in vain called upon their opponents to produce a single instance of the mind being manifested vigorously by a very small brain. Deficiency of size, however, in the brain is not the only cause of idiocy. A brain may be large and diseased, and mental imbecility arise from the disease; but, although disease be absent, if the size be very deficient, idiocy will be invariable. Thirdly, Men who have been remarkable, not for mere cleverness, but for great force of character, such as NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, have had large heads. Fourthly, It is an ascertained fact, that nations in whom the brain is large, possess so great a mental superiority over those in whom that organ is small, that they conquer and oppress
It is certified by practical hatters, that the lower classes of the community, who are distinguished for muscular vigour much more than mental capacity, require a smaller size of hat than those classes whose occupations are chiefly mental, and in whom vigour of mind surpasses that of body. But the Phrenologist does not compare mental power in general with size of brain in general; and, besides, the hat does not indicate the size of the whole head. The reader will find details on this point in the 4th volume of the Phrenological Journal.
them at pleasure. The Hindoo brain, for example, is considerably smaller than the European, and it is well known that a few thousands of Europeans have subdued and keep in subjection millions of Hindoos. The Native American brain is smaller also than the European, and the same result has been exemplified in that country. Lastly, The influence of size is now admitted by the most eminent physiologists. MAGENDIE says, "the volume of the brain is generally in direct proportion to the capacity of the mind. We ought not to suppose, however, that every man having a large head is necessarily a person of superior intelligence, for there are many cases of an augmentation of the volume of the head beside the size of the brain, but it is rarely found that a man distinguished by his mental faculties has not a large head. The only way of estimating the volume of the brain, in a living person, is to measure the dimensions of the skull; every other means, even that proposed by CAMPER, is uncertain."-(Compendium of Physiology, p. 104. edition 1826). The following passage which occurs in the 94th Number of the Edinburgh Review, also implies not only that different parts of the nervous system, including the brain, have different functions, but that an increase of volume in the brain is marked by some addition to, or amplification of, the powers of the animal. "It is in the nervous system alone that we can trace a gradual progress in the provision for the subordination of one (animal) to another, and of all to man; and are enabled to associate every faculty which gives superiority with some addition to the nervous mass, even from the smallest indications of sensation and will, up to the highest degree of sensibility, judgment, and expression. The brain is observed progressively to be improved in its structure, and, with reference to the spinal marrow and nerves, augmented in volume more and more, until we reach the human brain, each addition being marked by some addition to, or amplification of, the powers of the animal,-until in man we behold it possessing some parts of which animals are desti
tute, and wanting none which theirs possess." There is here, then, pretty strong evidence and authority for the assertion, that the brain does not form an exception to the general law of organized nature, that other conditions being equal, size of organ is a measure of power of function.
The circumstances which modify the effects of size fall next to be considered. These are constitution and health. The question naturally presents itself, Do we possess any index to constitutional qualities of brain? The temperaments indicate them to a certain extent. There are four temperaments, accompanied with different degrees of activity in the brain-the Lymphatic, the Sanguine, the Bilious, and the Nervous. The temperaments are supposed to depend upon the constitution of particular systems of the body; the brain and nerves being predominantly active from constitutional causes, produce the nervous temperament; the lungs, heart, and blood vessels being constitutionally predominant, give rise to the sanguine; the muscular and fibrous systems, to the bilious; and the glands and assimilating organs, to the lymphatic.
The different temperaments are indicated by external signs, which are open to observation. The first, or Lymphatic, is distinguishable by a round form of the body, softness of the muscular system, repletion of the cellular tissue, fair hair, and a pale clear skin. It is accompanied by languid vital actions, with weakness, and slowness in the circulation. The brain, as part of the system, is also slow, languid, and feeble in its action, and the mental manifestations are proportionally weak.
The second, or sanguine constitution, is indicated by well defined forms, moderate plumpness of person, tolerable firmness of flesh, light hair, inclining to chesnut, blue eyes, and fair complexion, with ruddiness of countenance. It is marked by great activity of the bloodvessels, fondness for exercise, and an animated countenance. The brain partakes of the general state, and is active.
The Bilious temperament is recognised by black hair, dark skin, moderate fulness, and much firmness of flesh, with harshly expressed outline of the person. The functions partake of great energy of action, which extends to the brain, and the countenance, in consequence, shews strong, marked, and decided features.
The Nervous temperament is recognised by fine thin hair, thin skin, small thin muscles, quickness in muscular motion, paleness of countenance, and often delicate health. The whole nervous system, including the brain, is predominantly active, and the mental manifestations are proportionally vivacious.
It is thus clearly admitted, that constitution or quality of brain has a great influence on the mental effects of size; but let us attend to the consequences. As a general rule, all the parts of the same brain have the same constitution, and if size be a measure of power, then in each head the large organs will be more powerful than the small ones. This enables us to judge of the strong and the weak points in each head. But if we compare two separate brains, then we must recollect that the size of the two may be equal; and, nevertheless, the one from possessing the finest texture, and most vigorous constitution, may be exceedingly active, while another, from being inferior in quality, may be naturally inert. The consequence will be, that the best constituted brain will manifest the mind with most vigour. That size is nevertheless the measure of power, may be proved by contrasting the manifestations of a small and of a large brain, possessing the same combination of organs, and equally well constituted; the power or energy will then be found greatest in the latter. This is what is meant by other natural conditions being equal. As the temperaments are distinguishable by the countenance, and the general make of the body, and as the brain partakes of the general constitution, we possess an index to its natural qualities. I repeat that these remarks apply only to the case of
comparing one brain with another. The same brain has in general the same constitution, and on the principle that size is a measure of power, the largest organs in each individual will be naturally the most vigorous. If the temperament be lymphatic, all the organs will act slowly, but the largest will be most powerful and most active, on account of their superior size. If the temperament be active, all will be active, but the largest will still take the lead. It is on this account that a student of Phrenology in search of evidence, should not compare the same organ in different brains.
Further, the brain must possess a healthy constitution, and that degree of activity which is the usual accompaniment of health. Now, the brain, like other parts of the body, may be affected with certain diseases which do not diminish or increase its magnitude, and yet impair its functions. The Phrenologist ascertains the health by inquiry. In cases of disease, great size may be present, and very imperfect manifestations appear; or it may be attacked with other diseases, such as inflammation, or any of those particular affections whose nature is unknown, but to which the name of Mania is given in nosology, and which greatly exalt its action; and then very forcible manifestations may proceed from a brain comparatively small; but it is no less true, that when a larger brain is excited to the same degree by the same causes, the manifestations become increased in energy, in proportion to the increase of size. These cases, therefore, form no valid objection to Phrenology; for the phrenologist ascertains, by previous inquiry, that the brain is in a state of health. If it is not, he makes the necessary limitations in drawing his conclusions.
Let us turn our attention to the point of the argument at which we are now arrived. We have seen that the brain is the organ of the mind,—that it is not a single organ, but that the analogy of all the other organs, the successive development of the faculties, the phenomena of partial genius,-