the aboriginal Americans, that the natives of these countries are not received as witnesses in the Colonial Courts; and it is a curious fact, that a defect in the organ of Conscientiousness is a reigning feature in the skulls of these nations in possession of the Phrenological Society. The notions of justice of that individual are most fit to be assumed as a standard, in whom this organ is decidedly large, in combination with a large endowment of the other moral sentiments and reflection; just as we hold the person possessed of the greatest organ of Tune, in combination with the organs of the moral sentiments and reflection, to be the best judge of musical compositions. It is obvious, also, that laws, or positive commands, ordering and forbidding certain actions, become necessary as rules, to those who do not possess a sufficient endowment of this sentiment from nature to regulate their conduct. Those who are favourably gifted, are, in the language of St PAUL," a law unto themselves.

It has been objected, that persons possessing a large development of this organ, not unfrequently act in opposition to the dictates of the sentiment, and practise selfishness, or sacrifice justice to ambition, exactly as those do in whom the organ is small; and it is asked, What becomes of the organ in such instances? The plurality of organs and faculties explains this phenomenon. Conscientiousness is not the only faculty in the mind, and, although it is paramount in authority, it is not always so in strength. A person in whom Benevolence and Destructiveness are both large, may, under special circumstances, which strongly excite Destructiveness, manifest that faculty in rage, revenge, or undue severity, in direct opposition to Benevolence. In like manner, an individual in whom Acquisitiveness and Self-Esteem are large, may, if these are very forcibly addressed, obey their impulse in opposition to that of Conscientiousness; but the benevolent man, when the temptation is past, feels the opposition between his conduct and the dictates of Benevolence; and, in like manner, the indi

vidual last supposed, on cool reflection, becomes conscious of the opposition betwixt his unjust preference of himself, and the dictates of Conscientiousness; both will repent, and will make atonement, and desire to avoid repetition of such errors. If Benevolence and Conscientiousness had been small, they would not have felt that their actions were wrong; they would have experienced no remorse; and their lower faculties would have operated with greatly increased violence. I have observed practically, that when Conscien tiousness is large in any individual, he will yield compliance with demands made on him whenever a strong case in justice is made out by the applicant; but when the organ is not large, he will be moved only by favour or partiality. It is of the utmost importance to the respectability of Government, and the welfare of the people, that public functionaries should possess the former character. The necessity of it in persons in authority will be more and more felt as society advances in knowledge, discrimination, and morality.

Another difficulty is experienced in the doctrine, that Conscientiousness is merely a sentiment, and does not form specific ideas of what is just. This will be best removed by an example: A judge hears one side of a cause, and Conscientiousness, acting on the statement presented to it, through the medium of the intellect, produces the feeling that this first party is in the right. The other litigant is next heard, new facts appear, and Conscientiousness may now produce the feeling that justice lies on his side. If this faculty itself had formed specific ideas of what is just, it would have been an intellectual power, and reasoning would have been in proportion to it, which is not the case; but, as it is only a sentiment, its real function is to produce an emotion of justice or injustice, on the particular case of assemblage of facts presented to it by the intellect. An illustration of this doctrine is found in the "Hermit" by PARNELL. The angel throws the servant over the bridge; and this is felt to be unjust, while nothing more

is known than the result; but when the intellect is afterwards informed, that he intended next night to murder his master, Conscientiousness feels that his destruction by the angel was just. This is not Conscientiousness giving opposite decisions on the same case; but the intellect presenting different cases, or different views of the same case, and Conscientiousness producing its peculiar emotion, in regard to each according as it is laid before it.

This organ is occasionally found diseased, and then the most awful sentiments of guilt, generally imaginary, harrow up the mind. I have seen two individuals labouring under this disease. One of them believed himself to be in debt to an enormous amount, which he had no means of paying. The other imagined himself to be guilty of murder, and every variety of wickedness contained in the records of iniquity; when, in fact, the whole conduct of both while in health, had been marked by the greatest honour and scrupulosity. When this organ, and that of Cautiousness, are diseased at the same time, the individual imagines himself to be the most worthless of sinners, and is visited with fearful apprehensions of punishment. Such patients sometimes present a picture of despair which is truly appalling. Slight degrees of disease of these organs, not amounting to insanity, are not unfrequent in this country, and produce an inward trouble of the mind, which throws a gloom over life, and leads such persons to see only the terrors of religion.

In the first edition of this work, I stated that gratitude probably arises from this faculty; but Sir G. S. MACKENZIE, in his "Illustrations of Phrenology," has shewed that "gratitude" is much heightened by Benevolence,—a view in which I now fully acquiesce.

It is premature to speak of the combinations of the faculties, before we have finished the detail of the simple functions; but this is the most proper occasion, in other respects, to observe, that Phrenology enables us to account for the origin of the various theories of morals before enumerated.

HOBBES, for instance, denied every natural sentiment of justice, and erected the laws of the civil magistrate into the standard of morality. This doctrine would appear natural and sound to a person in whom Conscientiousness was very feeble; who never experienced in his own mind a single emotion of justice, but who was alive to fear, to the desire of property, and other affections which would render security and regular government desirable. It is probable that HOBBES was so constituted.

MANDEVILLE makes selfishness the basis of all our actions, but admits a strong appetite for praise; the desire for which, he says, leads men to abate other enjoyments, for the sake of obtaining it. If we conceive MANDEVILLE to have possessed a deficient Conscientiousness, and a large Love of Approbation, this doctrine would be the natural language of his mind.

Mr HUME erects utility, to ourselves or others, into the standard of virtue; and this would be the natural feeling of a mind in which Benevolence and Reflection were strong, and Conscientiousness weak.

PALEY makes virtue consist in obeying the will of God, as our rule, and doing so for the sake of eternal happiness as the motive. This is the natural language of a mind in which the selfish or lower propensities are considerable, and in which Veneration is strong, and Conscientiousness not remarkable for vigour.

CUDWORTH, HUTCHESON, REID, STEWART and BROWN *, on the other hand, contend most eagerly and eloquently for

• I embrace this opportunity of paying a humble tribute to the talents of the late Dr THOMAS BROWN. The acuteness, depth, and comprehensiveness of intellect displayed in his works on the Mind, place him in the highest rank of philosophical authors; and these great qualities are equalled by the purity and vividness of his moral perceptions. His powers of analysis are unrivalled, and his eloquence is frequently splendid. His "Lectures" will remain a monument of what the human mind was capable of accomplishing, in investigating its own constitution, by an imper. fect method. In proportion as Phrenology shall become known, the admiration of his genius will increase; for it is the highest praise to say,

the existence of an original sentiment or emotion of justice in the mind, altogether independent of other considerations; and this is the natural feeling of persons in whom this faculty is powerful. A much respected individual, in whom this organ is predominantly large, mentioned to me, that no circumstance in philosophy occasioned to him greater surprise, than the denial of the existence of a moral faculty; and that the attempts to prove it appeared to him like endeavours to prop up, by demonstration, a self-evident axiom in mathematical science.

The organ is regarded as established.


THIS organ is situated on each side of that of Veneration, and extends under part of the frontal and part of the parietal bones. It cannot be brought into outline in a drawing, and on this account no figure is given.

Dr GALL considered Hope as belonging to every faculty; but Dr SPURZHEIM very properly observes, that although every faculty being active produces desire, as Acquisitiveness the desire for property, and Love of Approbation the desire for praise; yet this is very different from Hope, which is a simple emotion, sui generis, susceptible of being directed in a great variety of ways, but not desiring any

that, in regard to many points of great difficulty and importance in the Philosophy of Mind, he has arrived, by his own reflections, at conclusions harmonizing with those obtained by phrenological observation. Of this, his doctrine on the moral emotion discussed in the text, is a striking instance. Sometimes, indeed, his arguments are subtle, his distinctions too refined; and his style is circuitous; but the phrenologist will pass lightly over these imperfections, for they occur only occasionally, and arise from mere excess of the faculties of Secretiveness, Comparison, Causality, and Wit; on a great endowment of which, along with Concentrativeness, his penetration and comprehensiveness depended. In fact, he possessed the organs of these powers largely developed, and they afford a key to his genius.

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