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largely developed, they are mild and docile; whereas, when it is deficient, they are vicious, ill-natured, and intractable. Dr GALL gives some interesting illustrations of this fact. The head of the tiger, says he, is more flat at this part than that of the lion; and the heads of the hyæna and wolf are more depressed than that of the dog. The organ is greatly depressed immediately above the level of the eyes, in the baboon; while, on the contrary, it is elevated in the ouranoutang; and the dispositions of all these animals are in accordance with their development. In the horse, the organ is placed in the middle of the forehead, a little above the eyes. When this region is hollow and narrow, a horse is invariably vicious, and disposed to bite and to kick. In mild and good natured horses, on the contrary, this part stands as far out as the eyes, or even farther. The driver of a cabriolet of Neuilly, says Dr GALL, bought, at a low price, a horse which nobody could use on account of its extreme bad temper; but it was an excellent runner. In the first week it bit off two of the driver's fingers, and one of his ears. He attempted to correct it by redoubled blows, but these rendered it only more vicious. He then resolved to try the effect of gentle treatment, and this succeeded to a certain degree. The organ in question was very small in this animal; and the same conformation will be found in all horses which require to be muzzled, to prevent them from biting. On one occasion, a gentleman in the country mentioned at his dinner-table that he had two horses, one extremely mild, and the other very vicious, in temper. They were brought out into the stable-yard, and by examining their heads, according to Dr GALL's directions, I pointed out each, without having previously seen them. The difference was so great, that several persons who were present recognised it, the moment they were told where to look for it. I have seen this experiment repeated with invariable success.
The same rule holds in regard to dogs. Dr GALL saved two puppies of a litter of five, and watched their disposi
tions with the closest attention. Even before their eyes were opened he remarked a great difference between them; one of them, when taken into the hand, testified, by its gestures, that it was pleased; the other growled, whined, and struggled till it was put down. Scarcely were they fifteen days old, when one indicated, by the motions of its tail, contentment and gentleness, not only towards other little dogs, but to persons who approached it; the other, on the contrary, never ceased to grumble, and to bite every one within its reach. Aware how much was attributed to education, Dr GALL charged those who habitually approached these animals to bestow equal caresses on each. He himself took the greatest pains to soften the disposition of the ill-natured one, but nothing could change its character. It bit even its mother, if she chanced to incommode it. In the sixth month, the dogs were seized with distemper, and with whatever degree of gentleness they were treated, the one never ceased to growl and bite, till death put an end to its efforts; while the other, on the contrary, till its last moment, gave the most striking marks of attachment and gratitude to those who took charge of it. Even the servants were forcibly struck with the difference in the dispositions of these animals. Dr GALL states, that the difference in their heads was equally conspicuous.
In observing this organ in the lower animals, it is necessary to be acquainted with the osteology of their skulls, to be able correctly to distinguish its place. In some of them, the elephant, the sow, &c. the two tables of the skull are not parallel at this part, and hence the size of the organ in them cannot be ascertained, except by dissection. In the bull and cow, the inner table is separated to some distance from the external table, but the two tables are parallel in the region of this organ, and on this account its size may be judged of during life. The same is the case, says Dr GALL, with the cat *.
"There are examples," says Dr SPURZHEIM, "on record,
Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau, tome v. p. 327.
where animals have shewn high degrees of benevolence to others, and even to man. A respectable family in Paris told me, that they had a horse and a cow living together in the same stable; that the horse several times got untied, went to the corner where the sack of oats stood, and drew it in his teeth near the cow; probably to make her partake of the good cheer. Many dogs also exhibit the same feeling. DUPONT DE NEMOURS saw a swallow caught by one foot in the noose of a pack-thread, attached to the roof of the French Institute at Paris. The prisoner screamed, and attracted all the swallows of the neighbourhood. After a long and tumultuous consultation, a great number formed a line, one after another, darted at the pack-thread with their bills, and in half an hour delivered the captive *."
Some incidents of a similar nature have happened in this country. Dr MILLAR favoured me with the following statement:-"The Reverend Dr WODROW, late of Stevenston in Ayrshire, when clergyman of Dunlop, a parish in the same county, narrates a curious fact, concerning swallows, in a letter to his relative, Mrs THOMSON of Edinburgh."—" At Dunlop manse, says he, in a very dry summer, one of their nests, attached to the corner of the par-lour window, fell down, and lay on the window-sill, without any damage done either to the nest or its helpless inhabitants, four or five young ones. It was a few minutes before breakfast, when I observed the accident; and soon after it happened, I went out and carefully placed it on the top of a cut hedge, and I waited to see the event. It was pleasant to see the young ones fed at proper intervals, and, at the same time, a great number of other swallows jointly and busily employed, in a warm summer morning, in building a new nest in the same place with the former; some of them bringing clay, straws, &c.: others making use of these materials; others dipping themselves into an open well, and plashing the walls of the nest, and all of them cheering one another to the useful work. In two
Phrenology, p. 118.
hours the new nest was completely finished, and then the young ones were carried through the air under the wings of one, sometimes two, old swallows, and safely placed in their lodging; after which the noise and cheering of the troop ceased." Dr POOLE also stated to me, that a cat having seized a young sparrow, a flock of these birds perceiving it, attacked the cat, fastened on its back, pecked and flapped till they made it let go its hold, and rescued the intended victim. This happened in a garden behind St John Street, Edinburgh, and was witnessed by a neighbour of Dr POOLE'S, who communicated the circumstance to him. Dogs also are known to precipitate themselves into the water, to save persons in danger of being drowned; and they attack with fury assassins who assail their masters.
I have mentioned before, that stimulating liquors, by exciting the organs, give energy to the feelings or propensities which depend on them for the means of manifestation. Some individuals become excessively profuse when intoxicated. They would then give the world away; or, if they had the power, they would create a new one, in which every individual should enjoy infinite happiness. On the principle, that intoxication can never create any feeling, I am inclined to think that such persons have naturally a large endowment of Benevolence, the organ of which is stimulated to this great activity by strong potations. This, however, is only a conjecture.
This organ is liable to excessive excitement by disease. Dr GALL mentions the case of a hussar, who had always manifested great benevolence of disposition, and subsequently became insane. He gave away all his clothes, and left himself absolutely naked; he never ceased repeating that he wished to make every one happy, and he introduced into all his projects of beneficence the Holy Trinity. In his head the organs of Benevolence and Veneration were extremely developed. Idiots in whom this organ is largely developed are good-natured and harmless; while those in
whom it is small, if Destructiveness be large, are mischievous and wicked.
The Scotch metaphysicians in general admit the existence of this sentiment, but HOBBES, and many other metaphysical writers, who resolve all our actions into selfishness, deny it. Dr THOMAS BROWN successfully and beautifully answers the objection, that we are selfish even in our feelings of good-will. "The analysis of Love," says he, "as a complex feeling, presents to us always two elements; a vivid delight in the contemplation of the object, and a desire of good to that object. Though we cannot, then, when there is no interfering passion, think of the virtues of others without pleasure, and must therefore, in loving virtue, love what is by its own nature pleasing, the love of the virtue which cannot exist without the pleasure, is surely an affection very different from the love of the mere pleasure existing, if it had been possible for it to exist, without the virtue,-a pleasure that accompanies the virtue only, as the soft or brilliant colouring of nature flows from the great orb above,—a gentle radiance that is delightful to our eyes, indeed, and to our heart, but which leads our eye upward to the splendid source from which it flows, and our heart still higher, to that Being by whom the sun was made *.
THIS organ is situated at the middle of the coronal aspect of the brain, at the bregma or fontanel of anatomists. The figures represent it large and small.
Skull in Dr GALL'S Collection.
Veneration large, Benevolence