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made by examining the shape of the traveller's head. He says, "a Georgian merchant, who occupied the room next to mine, (it was in Cashmere), and was a very agreeable neighbour, did not, I observed, give a ready credit to my story, which he cross-examined with some tokens of suspicion; and one day having desired to look at my head, he decidedly pronounced it to be that of a Christian. In a future conversation he explained to me, and proved by comparison, that the head of a Christian is broad behind, and flatted out at the crown ;-that a Mahomedan's head grows narrow at the top, and, like a monkey's, has a conic form." (FORSTER'S Journey, vol. ii. p. 33.) This description indicates Cautiousness to be larger in the Christian. It is large in BRUCE, RAPHAEL, HETTE, the Mummies and Hindoos; moderate in BELLINGHAM, MARY MACINNES and Negroes. The difference between a large and small development frequently exceeds an inch in extent; and as the organ is particularly easy of observation, it deserves the attention of beginners.
The organ is ascertained.
GENUS III-OF THE AFFECTIVE FACULTIES.
HITHERTO We have considered Man so far as he is animal. But, besides the organs and faculties already spoken of, common to him with the brutes, he is endowed with a variety of sentiments, which constitute the human character. Of many of these the lower animals appear to be destitute. The convolutions which form the organs of Veneration, Hope, and Conscientiousness in the human brain, run transversely; and in the brains of the lower animals, so far as I have observed, no corresponding convolutions appear.
The organs of Benevolence and Imitation, however, which are here classed among the superior sentiments, run longitudinally, and corresponding parts are found in the brains of the lower animals. The faculties now to be treated of produce emotions or feelings.
THIS organ is situated at the upper part of the frontal bone, in the coronal aspect, and immediately before the fontanel. The figures represent the organ large and small.
One of Dr GALL's friends frequently said to him, that, as he sought for external indications of mental qualities, he ought to examine the head of his servant named JOSEPH. "It is impossible," said his friend, " to find a greater degree of goodness than that young man possesses. For more than ten years during which he has been in my service, I have seen him manifest, on all occasions, only benevolence, and sweetness of disposition. This is the more surprising, as he does not possess the advantages of education, and has grown up to manhood among servants of very inferior habits." Dr GALL adds, that, previous to that time, he had been far from supposing that what is called goodness of heart could have any organ in the brain, and, consequently, had never looked for indications of it in the head. The repeated solicitations of his friend, however, at length awoke his curiosity.
He immediately recollected the habitual conduct of a
young man, whom he had known from his most tender infancy, and who was distinguished from his numerous brothers and sisters by his goodness of heart. Although he was passionately fond of the games proper to his age, and delighted in scouring the forests in search of birds' nests; yet no sooner did any of his brothers or sisters become sick, than an inclination yet more irresistible kept him at home, and drew from him the most assiduous attentions towards the sufferer. When grapes, or apples, or cherries, were distributed among the children, his share was always the least, and he rejoiced in seeing the others partake more largely than himself. He was never more pleased than when some good fortune happened to those whom he loved, on which occasions he often shed tears of joy. He was fond of taking charge of sheep, dogs, rabbits, pigeons and birds, and if one of these birds happened to die, he wept bitterly, which did not fail to draw upon him the ridicule of his companions. Up to the present time, continues Dr GALL, benevolence and goodness are the distinguishing characteristics of this individual. These dispositions certainly did not arise from education; on the contrary, he had been all along surrounded by those whose conduct was calculated to produce the very opposite results. Dr GALL then began to suspect, that what is called goodness of heart is not an acquired, but an innate, quality of the mind.
On another occasion, amidst a very large family, he spoke of the boasted goodness of heart of the servant Jo"Ah!" said the eldest daughter, "our brother CHARLES is exactly like him; you must positively examine his head, I cannot tell you how good a child he is."
"I had thus in my eye," says Dr GALL, "three cases, in which goodness of disposition was strongly marked. I took casts of their heads, placed them along side of each other, and continued to examine them, until I discovered a development common to the three. This, I at last found, although the heads were in other respects very differently formed. In the mean time, I tried to find similar cases in
families, schools, &c. that I might be in a condition to multiply and correct my observations. I extended my investigation to animals also, and, in a short time, collected so great a number of facts, that there is no fundamental quality, or faculty, whose existence is better established than that of Benevolence, and the organ with which it is connected."
The faculty produces the desire of the happiness of others, and disposes to compassion and active goodness. It is easy to distinguish kindness flowing from this sentiment,-from acts of attention, arising from Love of Approbation, or more interested motives. A warmth of manner, and directness of purpose, are communicated by this faculty, that touch the mind at once. We feel its character, and recognise it as genuine, unalloyed goodness, aiming at no end but the welfare of its object. There is, on the other hand, an air of coldness and constraint attending deeds of kindness, proceeding from interested motives, betraying the source from which they flow. The secret spring, and ulterior object, are apparent, notwithstanding the efforts made to conceal them. St PAUL gives a beautiful description of the genuine character of this sentiment, in his account of Christian charity, beginning, "Charity suffereth long and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself; is not puffed up." The good Samaritan mentioned in Scripture, is a delightful instance of the disposition formed by Benevolence when eminently powerful.
This faculty is a great source of happiness to the possessor. It communicates a lively, amiable, delightful tinge to the impressions received by the mind from without. It produces liberality of sentiment towards all mankind, a disposition to love them, and to dwell on their virtues rather than their vices. A person in whom this feeling is strong, rarely complains of the ingratitude or heartlessness of others. His goodness provides its own reward. The organ appears very large in the mask of HENRI Quatre.
When some one spoke to him of an officer of the League, by whom he was not loved, he replied, “ Je veux lui faire tant de bien, que je le forcerai de m'aimer malgré lui." A person thus endowed is so conscious of wishing well to others, that he does not doubt of their good will towards himself. Adhesiveness attaches us to friends and to country; but Benevolence brings the whole human race within the circle of our affections. FENELON exhibited a beautiful manifestation of it, when he said, "I am a true Frenchman, and love my country; but I love mankind better than my country." It inspired HENRI QUATRE also, when he replied to those who exhorted him to rigour towards some places which had joined the League; "La satisfaction qu'on tire de la vengeance ne dure qu'un moment; mais celle qu'on tire de la clemence est eternelle." The organ is large, and very distinctly marked, in the mask of JACOB JERVIS, presented by Dr ABELL to the Phrenological Society, and represented on p. 261. That individual possessed the sentiment in so high a degree, that he was obliged to hide himself when he saw persons coming to make improper solicitations, being conscious of his inability to resist them.
It is a vulgar idea that this faculty cannot be manifested, except in bestowing alms or giving away money. It may be exerted in the domestic circle, and in society, in a thousand ways, productive of advantage, without any idea of donation. It is benevolence to those with whom we live, to order our arrangements with a due regard to their comfort. and happiness; not to deny them legitimate and proper gratifications of their own dispositions; it is benevolence to suppress our own humours and tendencies, when these would give unnecessary pain to others; to restrain Self-Esteem and Destructiveness, for example, in our commands; to be mild and merciful in our censures; to exert our influence and authority to promote the welfare of others; and one of the most benevolent of all exercises, is to visit the poor and vicious, when suffering and wretched, even with the view of administering only the pecuniary bounty of