tions which never affect them; free from the restraints which delicacy imposes upon others, they practise upon the benevolence, the disposition to oblige, or the interest of mankind, and succeed in circumstances in which a sensitive mind would have found only obstacles unsurmountable.

Philosophers and acute observers of human nature, have long distinguished betwixt Pride and Vanity, but nevertheless, no error is more frequently committed by ordinary minds than to confound them; and no mistake is more common than to imagine that beaux and belles, and all individuals very tasteful and particular about their personal appearance or equipages, are necessarily extremely conceited. A large Love of Approbation and much Ideality, joined with Individuality, which produces attention to details, and Order, will, in general, give rise to the passion for neatness, propriety, and ornament; but such a combination, in place of producing a proud or conceited character, inspires with the very opposite dispositions. I rarely see a dandy who is not at bottom a polite, obliging, good natured, but probably weak individual; and it is only when large Self-Esteem is added to the combination, and which is not an indispensable ingredient in beauxism, that the common opinion will be justified by the result.

This faculty corresponds to the Desire of Esteem of Dr REID and Mr STEWART, and to the Desire of Glory of Dr THOMAS BROWN. Their observations on its functions are generally correct; but here, as in the case of Self-Esteem, they treat only of its heroic manifestations, and present us with no views of its operations on the more interesting theatre of private life.

The faculty, when powerful, gives a soft soliciting tone to the voice, puts smiles into the countenance, and produces that elegant line of beauty in the lips which resembles APOLLO'S bow.

As formerly mentioned, the French are remarkable for a large development of the organ, while the English excel in Self-Esteem. The influence of the Love of Approbation

shews itself in the manners, institutions, and daily literature of France, in an extraordinary degree. Compliments and praises are the current coin of conversation, and a late writer most justly observes, that, "in France, glory is the condiment to the whole feast of life; and the trumpet of fame is that which makes the sweetest music to their ears*." In private life also, an individual, who has a great Love of Approbation in his own head, is extremely prone to pay compliments to others, from an instinctive feeling of the pleasure of being praised. The organ is very large in the American Indians; and the love of decorations and ornaments, whether these consist of stars, garters and medals, or of tatooed faces, bored noses and eagles' feathers, spring from it.

The faculty is more active in women, in general, than in men; and it is observed, that a greater number of women than of men become insane from this feeling. Dr SPURZHEIM mentions, that he had met with only one man who had become deranged from this cause. Its effects, when diseased, have already been described in the history of the discovery of the organ.

The organ is possessed by the lower animals. The dog is extremely fond of Approbation, and the horse displays the sentiment, not only in his sensibility to marks of affection, but in his spirit of emulation in the race. Dr GALL mentions, that, in the south of France, the peasants attach a "bouquet" to the mules when they have acquitted themselves well, and that the animals understand it as a mark of approbation, and feel afflicted when it is taken away. He mentions also, that he had a female monkey, who, on receiving a handkerchief, put it on as a robe, and took extraordinary delight in seeing it trail behind her as a train. In all these creatures the organ is largely developed.

The organ is large in Dr HETTE, the Rev. Mr M., in King ROBERT BRUCE, CLARA FISHER; and deficient in D. HAGGART and DEMPSEY.

It is established.

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THIS organ is situated near the middle of each parietal bone, where the ossification of the bone generally com



The figures represent its appearance when large and small.

Cautiousness Large.

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Dr GALL was acquainted at Vienna with a prelate, a man of excellent sense and considerable intellect. Some persons had an aversion towards him, because, through fear of compromising himself, he infused into his discourses interminable reflections, and delivered them with unsupportable slowness. When any one began a conversation with him, it was very difficult to bring it to a conclusion. He paused continually in the middle of his sentences, and repeated the beginning of them two or three times before proceeding farther. A thousand times he pushed the patience of Dr GALL to extremity. He never happened by any accident to give way to the natural flow of his ideas; but recurred a hundred times to what he had already said, consulting with himself whether he could not amend it in some point. His manner of acting was in conformity with his manner of speaking. He prepared with infinite precautions for the most insignificant undertakings. He subjected every connexion to the most rigorous examination and calculation before forming it.

This case, however, was not by itself sufficient to arrest the attention of Dr GALL; but this prelate happened to be connected in public affairs with a Councillor of the Regency, whose eternal irresolution had procured for him the nickname of Cacadubio. At the examinations of the public schools, these two individuals were placed side by side, and Dr GALL sat in the seat immediately behind them. This arrangement afforded him an excellent opportunity of observing their heads. The circumstance which most forcibly arrested his attention was, that both their heads were very large in the upper, lateral, and hind parts, the situation of the organ in question. The dispositions and intellectual qualities of these two men were, in other respects, very different; indeed they resembled each other in circumspection, and in this particular development of head alone. The coincidence between them in this point suggested the idea to Dr GALL, that irresolution, indecision, and circumspection, might be connected with certain parts of the brain. Subsequent reflection on this disposition, and observation of additional facts, converted this presumption into certainty.

It is a principle in Phrenology, that absence of one quality never confers another. Every feeling is something positive in itself, and is not a mere negation of a different emotion. Fear, then, is a positive sentiment, and not the mere want of courage; and it appears to me that the faculty now under discussion produces this feeling. The tendency of the sentiment is to make the individual apprehend danger; and this leads him to hesitate before he acts, and to trace consequences that he may be assured of his safety. Dr SPURZHEIM names it "Cautiousness,"-which appellation I retain as sufficiently expressive, although the primitive feeling appears, on a rigid analysis, to be simply fear. Dr GALL says, "It was requisite that man and animals should be endowed with a faculty to enable them to foresee certain events, to give them a presentiment of certain circumstances, and to prompt them to provide against

danger. Without such a disposition, their attention would have been occupied only with the present; and they would have been incapable of taking any measure with reference to the future." Accordingly, he describes the faculty which prompts to these actions, as if it comprised something intellectual; and calls it " Circumspection, Foresight." Dr SPURZHEIM "does not believe that it foresees; it is, in his opinion, blind, and without reflection, though it may excite the reflective faculties." This observation appears to me correct.

A full development of this organ is essential to a prudent character. It produces a cautious, circumspect, and considerate disposition of mind. Persons so organized, says Dr GALL," are habitually on their guard; they know that it is more difficult to sustain than to acquire reputation, and, consequently, every new undertaking is prosecuted with equal care as the first. They look forward to all possible dangers, and are anxious to anticipate every occurrence ; they ask advice of every one, and often, after having received much counsel, they remain undecided. They put great faith in the observation, that, of a hundred misfortunes which befal us, ninety-nine arise from our own fault. Such persons never break any article; they may pass their lives in pruning trees, or in working with sharp tools, without cutting themselves. If they see a vessel placed near the edge of the table, their nerves shrink. If they give credit, or indulge in gaming, they never lose large sums of money. Finally," says he, "they form a standing subject of criticism to their less considerate neighbours, who look on their forebodings as extravagant, and their precautions as trifling and absurd *.”

When the organ is too large, it produces doubts, irresolution, and wavering; and may lead to absolute incapacity for vigorous and decisive conduct. A great and involuntary activity of it produces a panic,—a state in which the

Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau, tome iv. p. 320.

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