foundation of our attachment to property *." A phrenologist, on analyzing the combination, would infer, that Acquisitiveness desires to acquire wealth, and Self-Esteem to hold and apply it to selfish gratification.

This organ appears to be possessed by the lower animals. The turkey-cock, peacock, horse, &c. manifest feelings resembling pride or Self-Esteem.

Dr GALL, however, entertained views on this subject peculiar to himself. He mentions, that, after having studied the sentiment of pride as a primitive mental quality, and its organ in the human race, he wished to ascertain whether his observations would be confirmed by the lower animals. He, therefore, examined the heads of such of them as we are accustomed to call proud,-the race-horse, the cock and peacock. He did not find in any of these a remarkable development of the cerebral parts, corresponding to the organ of Self-Esteem in man; but he found a considerable development of these parts in animals in which he would never have thought of looking for it, that is to say, in those which voluntarily remain in the higher regions of the air, living on mountains, and other elevated situations; for example, in the roebuck, the chamois, the wild goat, and certain species of eagles and falcons; and what struck him most was, that the parts in question were the more developed, in proportion to the greater height of the dwellingplaces of the animals. Dr GALL himself was astonished at this observation. That a predilection for physical heights, should, in animals, depend on the same organ as that to which the sentiment of Self-Esteem is referrible in man, appeared to him, at first, altogether improbable and inadmissible; yet, says he, "I have laid down the rule to communicate the progress of my observations, as well as the manner in which they have given rise to my opinions. Opinions which have not facts for their basis, if not erroneous, are at least very likely to be so; and a natural historian ought to be less ashamed of committing an error in * Outlines, p. 92.

his interpretations of facts, than of founding his opinions on reasoning alone." He accordingly enters into some interesting observations on the various dwelling-places of animals; directing the attention of his readers both to those which inhabit elevated regions, and to others which prefer the lowest situations; and states, that, in all animals which have their abodes in high places, there is a lengthened eminence in the middle line of the head, immediately above the organ of Philoprogenitiveness, and which entirely resembles the organ of Self-Esteem in man *.

Dr SPURZHEIM holds, that this prominence in the brains of the lower animals corresponds to the organ No. III. in man, (named by him Inhabitiveness, and, in this work, Concentrativeness); and, while he admits the accuracy of the facts stated by Dr GALL, he differs from his conclusions, and says, that it is not the same organ which produces in man the sentiment of Self-Esteem, and, in the lower creatures, the love of physical heights; but that there are distinct organs both in man and the lower animals for these separate mental qualities. It appears to me, that Dr SPURZHEIM is correct in maintaining, that the organ No. III. is distinct from that of Self-Esteem, both in the lower animals and in man; and the real extent of the difference betwixt him and Dr GALL is this,-Dr SPURZHEIM admits two organs lying betwixt Firmness and Philoprogenitiveness, but Dr GALL only one: Dr GALL considers the whole of the intermediate cerebral parts as the organ in man of Self-Esteem, and, in animals, of the love. of physical height; while Dr SPURZHEIM regards the upper portion of these parts as the organ of Self-Esteem, and the lower portion as the organ of Inhabitiveness in both cases. I am satisfied that the organs are distinct in the human species, and that the upper serves to manifest Self-Esteem. Farther observations must determine the functions of the lower organ, or No. III.

Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau, tome iv. p. 279.

When the organ becomes excited by disease, the individual imagines himself to be a king, an emperor, a transcendent genius, or even the Supreme Being. Dr GALL mentions the case of a Monsieur B., in whom the organ was naturally very large, and who was accidentally wounded by a nail in this part of the brain. While labouring under the influence of the wound, he felt himself as it were elevated above the clouds, and carried through the air, retaining, at the same time, and also manifesting, during his convalescence, the same proud and haughty manners which had distinguished him during health.

"The organ was equally conspicuous in an insane patient at Baden, near Rastadt. This man's insanity consisted in believing himself a Major. He had a small head, and the only organ which was developed in a high degree was that of Self-Esteem; the whole other convolutions of the brain being very small. In the charity work-house of Fribourg, we saw an insane man who was extremely proud. He declared, in a vehement and pathetic tone," qu'il est la souche' by the aid of which GoD created and preserves the world; that he has been crowned by JESUS CHRIST; that he is the young man whom the Queen of Heaven has selected for her spouse. His attitude is that of an arrogant despot. Deeply inspired with sentiments of his high importance, he crosses his arms, and to give an idea of the astonishing power which he possesses, he strikes his breast and sides with violence. In general, he stands with one foot placed before the other, the body erect, and a little inclined backwards. When I requested him," says Dr GALL, "to allow me to touch his head, he replied with astonishing arrogance, Ich habe keinen Kopf, sondern ein Haupt,' I have no head such as common men possess, but a Haupt or head peculiar to Kings and Gods. He turned away, holding us to be totally unworthy of approaching him. We observed, however, very distinctly, that he had the organ of Self-Esteem very largely developed."

Pinel, Fodere', and other authors on Insanity, men


tion cases equally characteristic of disease of this organ. "A patient" says PINEL, "confined in a private asylum in Paris, during his fits, believed himself to be the Prophet Mahomet, assumed an attitude of command, and the tone of the Most High; ses traits étaient rayonnans, et sa démarche pleine de majesté.' One day when cannon were fired in Paris on account of some events of the Revolution, he persuaded himself that it was to render him homage; he caused silence to be observed around him, and could not restrain his joy." "A woman," continues the same author, "extremely imperious, and accustomed to make her husband obey with even more than docility, remained in bed part of the morning, and then insisted that he should come, and on his knees present her with drink. She ended, by believing herself, in the ecstasies of her pride, to be the Virgin Mary." In the Richmond Lunatic Asylum in Dublin, I saw several cases similar to the foregoing, and which are reported in the Phrenological Journal, vol. vi.

This organ is generally larger in men than in women; and more males are insane through pride than females.

The organ is large in HAGGART and DEMPSEY, and moderate in Dr HETTE. It is regarded as established.


THIS organ is situated on each side of that of SelfEsteem, and commences about half an inch from the lambdoidal suture. When large, it produces a remarkable fulness and breadth in the upper and back part of the head. From its situation, it cannot be brought into line, so as to be represented successfully by figures, similar to those used in illustration of the other organs.

When Dr GALL was occupied in making observations on the organ of Self-Esteem, he met with a woman in a lunatic asylum who conceived herself to be the Queen of France. He expected to find the organ of that sentiment

largely developed; but, in place of this being the case, there was a very distinct hollow in the situation of it, and a round and considerable prominence presented itself on each side. This circumstance at first caused him considerable embarrassment. He soon perceived, however, that the character of this woman's insanity differed materially from that of men alienated through pride. The latter were serious, calm, imperious, elevated, arrogant; and they affected a masculine majesty. Even in the fury of their fits, all their motions and expressions bore the impress of the sentiment of domination, which they imagined themselves to exercise over others. In those insane through vanity, on the other hand, the whole manner was different. There was then a restless frivolity, an inexhaustible talkativeness, the most affected forwardness; eagerness to announce high birth and inexhaustible riches, promises of favour and honour,—in a word, a mixture of affectation and absurdity. From that time Dr GALL perceived the difference between the sentiment of Self-Esteem and that of Love of Approbation.

He draws, with great accuracy, the distinction between pride, which is an abuse of Self-Esteem, and vanity, proceeding from abuse of Love of Approbation. The proud man, says he, is imbued with a sentiment of his own superior merit, and, from the summit of his grandeur, treats with contempt or indifference all other mortals. The vain man attaches the utmost importance to the opinions entertained of him by others, and seeks with eagerness to gain their approbation. The proud man expects that mankind will come to him and acknowledge his merit. The vain man knocks at every door to draw attention towards him, and supplicates for the smallest portion of honour. The proud man despises those marks of distinction, which on the vain confer the most perfect delight. The proud man is disgusted by indiscreet eulogiums. The vain man inhales with ecstasy the incense of flattery, although profusely offered, and by no very skilful hand *.

GALL sur les Fonctions du Cerveau, tome iv. p. 296.

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