greater the talent for construction, the more this region of their head is projecting. The rabbit burrows under ground, and the hare lies upon the surface, and yet their external members are the same. On comparing their skulls, this region will be found more developed in the rabbit than in the hare. The same difference is preceptible between the crania of birds which build nests, and of those which do not build. Indeed the best way to become acquainted with the appearance of the organ in the lower animals, is to compare the heads of animals of the same species which build, with those which do not manifest this instinct; the hare, for example, with the rabbit, or birds which make nests with those which do not.

The organ is established.


THIS genus of faculties corresponds to the "emotions” of the metaphysicians. The feelings which they produce, are not the immediate consequences of the presence of external objects, but are excited, only indirectly, through the medium of intellectual perceptions or sensations. They differ from intellectual perceptions, in being accompanied with a peculiar vividness, which every one understands, but which it is impossible to express by any verbal definition*. They may exist, also, with great intensity, by the internal activity of the organs. Dr SPURZHEIM has named these faculties Sentiments, because they produce a propensity to act, joined with an emotion or feeling of a certain kind. Several of them are common to man and the lower animals; others are peculiar to man. The former shall be first treated of, and they are styled the Inferior or Lower Sentiments.

• Lectures by Dr Thomas Brown. Lecture 52.

1. Sentiments common to Man and the lower Animals.


THIS organ is situated at the vertex or top of the head, a little above the posterior or sagittal angle of the parietal bones. When large, the head rises far upward and backward from the ear, in the direction of it, see figures, p. 233.

Dr GALL gives the following account of the discovery of the organ. A beggar attracted his attention by his extraordinary manners. He reflected on the causes which, independently of an absolutely vicious conformation or of misfortunes, could reduce a man to mendicity, and believed that he had found one of the chief of them in levity and want of foresight. The form of the head of the beggar in question confirmed him in this opinion. He was young, and of an agreeable exterior, and the organ of Cautiousness was very little developed. Dr GALL moulded his head, and, on examining it with attention, remarked, in the upper and back part of the middle line, a prominence extending from above downwards, which could arise only from development of the cerebral parts there situated. He had not previously observed this prominence in other heads; and, on this account, he was very anxious to discover what it indicated. His head, moreover, was small, and announced neither strong feelings nor much intellect. After many questions addressed to the beggar, with a view to discover the remarkable traits of his character, he requested him to relate his history. The beggar said, that he was the son of a rich merchant, from whom he had inherited a considerable fortune; that he had always been so proud as not to be able to condescend to labour, either for the preservation of his paternal fortune, or to acquire a new one; and that this unhappy pride was the only cause of his misery. This, says Dr GALL, "called to my recollection those persons who forbear to cut their nails, with the view of supporting the

idea that they never require to work." He made several farther observations to the beggar, and shewed him that he doubted his veracity; but he always reverted to his pride, and seriously stated, that even now he could not resolve to follow any kind of labour. Although it was difficult to conceive how pride should cause a man to prefer begging to working, yet Dr GALL was led, by this person's reiterated assurances, to reflect upon the sentiment, and to observe the organ, and he found, at length, incontrovertible proofs of their connection.

He mentions a variety of cases in illustration, of which I select only the following:

A young man, endowed with faculties above mediocrity, had manifested, from his infancy, insupportable pride. He constantly maintained that he was of too good a family to work or apply himself to any thing. Nothing could free him from this absurdity; he was even put, for eighteen months, into a house of correction at Hainar. A physician of Vienna, an otherwise amiable man, carried the feeling of pride to such a point, that every time when called to a consultation, even with practitioners older than himself, or with public professors, he regularly took the precedence, both in entering and coming out of the apartment. When any document was to be subscribed, he insisted on adhibiting his signature first. He had connected himself with the director of the Great Hospital, but solely, as he himself told afterwards, for the purpose of supplanting him. At Heidelberg, Dr G. saw a girl of eighteen, of a remarkable character. Every word or gesture in the least familiar revolted her. She called on GoD on every occasion, as if he took a special interest in her affairs. When she spoke, assurance and presumption were painted in her features; she carried her head high and a little backwards, and all the movements of her head expressed pride. She was not capable of submission; when in a passion, she was violent and disposed to proceed to all extremities. Although only the daughter of a quill-merchant, she spoke her native language with extraordinary purity, and communicated only

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with persons of a rank superior to her own. In all these individuals, the organ of Self-Esteem was very largely developed. Dr GALL mentions, that he had examined also the heads of a number of Chiefs of Brigands, remarkable for this quality of mind, and that he had found the organ largely developed in them all. The figures represent the organ large and small.



Self-Esteem moderate,

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Self-Esteem large.

The faculty inspires with the sentiment of Self-Esteem or Self-love, and a due endowment of it, like that of all other faculties, produces only excellent effects. It imparts that degree of satisfaction with self, which leaves the mind open to the enjoyment of the bounties of Providence and the amenities of life; and inspires it with that degree of confidence, which enables it to apply its powers to the best advantage in every situation in which it is placed. It aids also in giving dignity in the eyes of others; and we shall find in society, that that individual is uniformly treated with the most lasting and sincere respect, who esteems himself so highly as to contemn every action that is mean or unworthy of an exalted mind. By communicating this feeling of self-respect, it frequently and effectually aids the moral sentiments in resisting temptations to vice. Several individuals in whom the organ is large, have stated to me that they have been restrained from forming improper connexions, by the overwhelming sense of self-degradation excited in their minds by the mere prospect of such a circumstance; and that they believed their better principles might have yielded to temptation, had it not been for the support afforded to them by the instinctive impulses of Self-Esteem.

An individual is predisposed to humility, when the organ is too small. In such a case, want of confidence, and of a due sense of his own importance, is felt. He has no reliance upon himself; if the public or his superiors frown, he is unable to pursue even a virtuous course, through diffidence of his own judgment. Inferior talents, combined with a strong endowment of Self-Esteem, are often crowned with far higher success, than more splendid abilities joined with this sentiment in a feebler degree. Dr ADAM SMITH, in his Theory of Moral Sentiments, remarks, that it is better, upon the whole, for an individual to have too much, than too little, of this feeling; because, if we pretend to more than we are entitled to, the world will give us credit for at least what we possess; whereas, if we pretend to less, we shall be taken at our word, and mankind will rarely have the justice to raise us to the true level.

It is only when possessed in an inordinate degree, and in-, dulged without restraint from higher faculties, that it produces abuses. In children, it then shews itself in pettishness, and a wilful temper. Those children in whom the organ is small, are generally obedient, and easily directed according to the will of others. In later life, a great development of the organ, with deficiency of other powers, produces arrogance, superciliousness of deportment, and selfishness. The first thought of persons so endowed is, how the thing proposed will affect themselves; they see the world and all its interests only through the medium of self, I have seen individuals mistake the impulses of it for the inspiration of genius, and utter common-place observations with a solemnity and emphasis suitable only to concentrated wisdom. The musician, under its predominating influence, is sometimes led to embellish a tune with decorations of his own inventing, till its character is changed, and the melody destroyed. In short, when the organ is inordinately large, it communicates to the individual a high sentiment of his own importance, and leads him to believe, that whatever he does or says is admirable, just because it proceeds from him. It inspires him with magnificent notions of his

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