plied observations. At Vienna, some gentlemen of distinction brought to him a person, concerning whose talents they solicited his opinion. He stated that he ought to have a great tendency towards mechanics. The gentlemen imagined that he was mistaken, but the subject of the experiment was greatly struck with this observation: He was the famous painter UNTERBERgen. To shew that Dr GALL had judged with perfect accuracy, he declared that he had always had a passion for the mechanical arts, and that he painted only for a livelihood. He carried the party to his house, where he shewed them a multitude of machines and instruments, some of which he had invented, and others improved. Besides, Dr GALL remarks that the talent for design so essential to a painter, is connected with the organ of Constructiveness, so that the art which he practised publicly was a manifestation of the faculty.

Dr SCHEEL of Copenhagen had attended a course of Dr GALL'S lectures at Vienna, from which city he went to Rome. One day he entered abruptly, when Dr GALL was surrounded by his pupils, and presenting to him the cast of a skull, asked his opinion of it. Dr GALL instantly said, that he had never seen the organ of Constructiveness so largely developed as in the head in question." SCHEEL continued his interrogatories. Dr GALL then pointed out also a large development of the organs of Amativeness and Imitation. "How do you find the organ of Colouring?”— “I had not previously adverted to it," said GALL, “for it is only moderately developed." SCHEEL replied, with much satisfaction," that it was a cast of the skull of RAPHAEL." Every reader, acquainted with the history of this celebrated genius, will perceive that Dr GALL'S indications were exceedingly characteristic. Casts of this skull may be seen in the Phrenological Society's collection, and also in De VILLE'S in London, and O'NEILL'S in Edinburgh, and the organs mentioned as large will be found very conspicuously indicated. That of Constructiveness in particular presents the round elevated appearance above described, as the

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surest indication of its presence in a high degree. An admirable Essay by Mr ScoTT on the genius of RAPHAEL, compared with the cerebral developmentdicated by this skull, will be found in the Phrenological Journal, vol. ii. p. 327.

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These figures represent a side view and front view of the skulls of RAPHAEL and a New Hollander. In the front view, the coronal region of the New Hollander comes into the figure, and gives the forehead an appearance of size and perpendicularity greater than nature. But at the organ of Constructiveness, immediately behind and above the external angle of the eye, the front view represents the real dimensions in both skulls. In the New Hollander, the skull at Constructiveness falls greatly within the line of the cheek-bones; while in RAPHAEL, the skull swells out at that organ.

Sir WALTER SCOTT gives the following description of the New Hollanders. "The natives of New Holland are even at present in the very lowest scale of humanity, and ignorant of every art which can add comfort or decency to human life. These unfortunate savages use no clothes, construct no cabins or huts, and are ignorant even of the manner of chasing animals, or catching fish, unless such of the latter as are left by the tide, or which are found on the rocks."

Several of Dr GALL'S auditors spoke to him of a man

who was gifted with an extraordinary talent for mechanics; he described to them beforehand what form of a head he ought to hav and they went to visit him: it was the ingenious mathematical instrument-maker LINDNER, at Vienna; and his temples rose out in two little rounded irregular prominences. Dr GALL had previously found the same form of head in the celebrated mechanician and astronomer DAVID, Frere Augustin, and in the famous VOIGTLÆNDER, mathematical instrument-maker. At Paris, Prince SCHWARTZENBERG, then Minister of Austria, wished to put Drs GALL and SPURZHEIM to the test. When they rose from table, he conducted Dr GALL into an adjoining apartment, and shewed him a young man: without speaking a word, he and the Prince rejoined the company, and he requested Dr SPURZHEIM to go and examine the young man's head. During his absence, Dr GALL told the company what he thought of the youth. Dr SPURZHEIM immediately returned, and said, that he believed him to be a great mechanician, or an eminent artist in some constructive branch. The Prince, in fact, had brought him to Paris on account of his great mechanical talents, and supplied him with the means of following out his studies.

Dr GALL adds, that at Vienna, and in the whole course of his travels, he had found this organ developed in mechanicians, architects, designers, and sculptors, in proportion to their talent.

He mentions, that, at Mulhausen, the manufacturers do not receive into their employment any children, except those who, from an early age, have displayed a talent for the arts in drawing or clipping figures, because they know, from experience, that such subjects alone become expert and intelligent workmen.

Dr SPURZHEIM mentions the case of a milliner of Vienna, who was remarkable for constructive talent in her art, and in whom the organ is large. A cast of her skull is in the Phrenological Society's collection, and it presents

an appearance, in this particular part, resembling RA


When Dr SPURZHEIM was in Edinburgh, in 1817, he visited the work-shop of Mr JAMES MILNE, brass-founder, a gentleman who himself displays no small inventive genius in his trade, and in whom Constructiveness is largely developed, and examined the heads of his apprentices. The following is Mr MILNE's account of what took place upon the occasion:

"On the first boy presented to Dr SPURZHEIM, on his entering the shop, he observed, that he would excel in any thing he was put to. In this he was perfectly correct, as he was one of the cleverest boys I ever had. On proceeding farther, Dr SPURZHEIM remarked of another boy, that he would make a good workman. In this instance, also, his observation was well founded. An elder brother of his was working next him, who, he said, would also turn out a good workman, but not equal to the other. I mentioned, that, in point of fact, the former was the best, although both were good. In the course of farther observations, Dr SPURZHEIM remarked of others, that they ought to be ordinary tradesmen, and they were so. At last he pointed out one, who, he said, ought to be of a different cast, and of whom I would never be able to make any thing as a workman, and this turned out to be too correct; for the boy served an apprenticeship of seven years, and, when done, he was not able to do one-third of the work performed by other individuals, to whose instruction no greater attention had been paid. So much was I struck with Dr SPURZHEIM's observations, and so correct have I found the indications presented by the organization to be, that when workmen, or boys to serve as apprentices, apply to me, I at once give the preference to those possessing a large Constructiveness; and if the deficiency is very great, I would be disposed to decline receiving them, being convinced of their inability to succeed.”

The organ of this faculty is very largely developed in Mr

BRUNEL, the celebrated inventor of machinery for making blocks for the rigging of ships, by means of steam; and who has, besides, shewn a great talent for mechanics in numerous departments of art. It is large in EDWARDS, an eminent engraver; in WILKIE, HAYDON, and J. F. WILLIAMS, celebrated painters; in Sir W. HERSCHEL, whose great discoveries in astronomy arose from the excellence of his telescopes, made by his own hands; and in Mr SAMUEL JOSEPH, an eminent sculptor. Masks of all these individuals are to be seen in the Phrenological Society's collection. In the late Sir HENRY RAEBURN, who was bred a goldsmith, but became a painter by the mere impulse of nature, without teaching, and without opportunities of study, I observed it large. It is large, also, in Mr ScouLAR, a very promising young sculptor, who displayed this talent at a very early age. I have noticed it large in all the eminent operative surgeons of Edinburgh, in distinguished engravers, and also in the most celebrated cabinetmakers, who have displayed invention in their art. It and Form are large in children who are fond of clipping and drawing figures. It is large in tailors who excel in their


On the other hand, I possess a cast of the head of a very ingenious friend, distinguished for his talents as an author, who has often complained of so great a want of constructive ability, that he found it difficult even to learn to write; and, in his head, although large in other dimensions, there is a conspicuous deficiency in the region of Constructiveness. Among the negative instances fall to be ranked the casts and skulls of the New Hollanders, in the Phrenological Society's collection, which are all remarkably narrow in the situation of this organ; and their low condition in the constructive arts has been already mentioned. Contrasted with them, are the Italians and French. An accurate and intelligent phrenologist authorises me to state, that, during his travels in Italy, he observed a full development of Constructiveness to be a general feature in the Italian head;

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