ed as models of probity, cannot refrain from stealing and cheating during the paroxysm; and Dr GALL gives four cases of women, who, in their ordinary state, had no such tendency, but who, when pregnant, manifested it in a high degree.


Two citizens of Vienna attracted his notice, both of whom had led irreproachable lives previous to becoming inAfter that time both were distinguished for an extraordinary inclination to steal. They wandered over the hospital from morning to night, picking up whatever they could lay their hands upon,-straw, rags, clothes, wood, &c., which they carefully concealed in the apartment which they inhabited in common; and, although lodged in the same chamber, they stole from each other. In both the organ was very much developed.


M. ESQUIROL, physician to the Salpetrière of Paris, gave Dr GALL an account of a Knight of Malta, who had quitted the army at the beginning of the French revolution, and who, from excessive indulgence and disappointed love, had become weak in intellect, violent in temper, and at last a thief. On his way to M. ESQUIROL's asylum, he contrived to steal spoons, covers, &c. from the inns at which he dined. He then went about accompanied by a servant, and not unfrequently refreshed himself in coffeehouses, and, instead of paying, put the cup, saucer, and spoon in his pocket, and walked away. In other respects he was sufficiently reasonable. This inclination to theft was cured, although his intellect remained weak.

ACREL mentions a young man who was trepanned, in consequence of a severe wound on the temple, in the region of the organ of Acquisitiveness. After his dismissal from the hospital, he manifested an irresistible propensity to steal, and after committing several larcenies, he was imprisoned, and would have been condemned, had not ACREL declared him insane.

"There are persons," says that accurate and philosophi

cal observer and physician Dr RUSH of Philadelphia *, "who are moral to the highest degree as to certain duties, but who, nevertheless, live under the influence of some one vice. In one instance a woman was exemplary in her obedience to every command of the moral law except one, she could not refrain from stealing. What made this vice more remarkable was, that she was in easy circumstances, and not addicted to extravagance in any thing. Such was the propensity to this vice, that, when she could lay her hands upon nothing more valuable, she would often, at the table of a friend, fill her pockets secretly with bread. She both confessed and lamented her crime."

The Journal de Paris of 29th March 1816, states, that “An ex-commissary of police, BEAU-CONSEIL, has just been condemned to eight years' confinement and hard labour, and to the pillory, for having, when still in office, stolen some pieces of plate from an inn. The accused persisted to the last in an odd enough species of defence. He did not deny the crime, but he attributed it to mental alienation, occasioned by wounds which he had received at Marseilles in 1815." Dr GALL observes, that if the previous conduct of BEAU-CONSEIL was irreproachable, and if he did really receive a wound in the head, either his defender was inexcusable in not making the defence available, or the Court was blameable in not listening to it.

This propensity is found also in the lower animals. Lord KAMES observes, that "the beavers perceive the timber they store up to be their property; and the bees seem to have the same perception with regard to their winter provision of honey." Dr GALL also mentions a variety of the lower animals which manifest the sense of property. The same pair of storks, swallows, nightingales, and redbreasts return, in spring or in autumn, to the same country in which they had passed the season in the preceding year, and establish themselves, the storks on the same steeples, the swallows under the same roofs, and the nightRUSH's Medical Inquiries.

ingales in the same bushes. If another pair of birds attempt to seize the place already appropriated, war is immediately waged against them, and the intruders are forced to depart. Cows returning from the pasturage, occupy each its own stall in the byre, and defend it. The cat and dog, in hiding food, to be used when hunger returns; and the squirrel, hamster, and jackdaw, which collect provisions for the winter,-undoubtedly have the notion of property in the stores they accumulate. These animals, however, do not enact laws; and the sense of property is in them an instinct of nature. In the human race, says Dr GALL, the process is the same; nature inspires the mind with the notion of property, and laws are made to protect it.

This organ is established.


THIS organ is situated at that part of the frontal bone immediately above the spheno-temporal suture. Its appearance and situation vary slightly, according to the development of the neighbouring parts. If the zygomatic process is very projecting, or if the middle lobes of the brain, or the forehead in general, or the organs of Language and Order in particular, are greatly developed, its size is less easily distinguished. The leading object ought to be to determine the actual size of each organ, and not its mere prominence; and, on this account, it is proper farther to notice, that, if the base of the brain is narrow, this organ holds a situation a little higher than usual, and there will then frequently be found a slight depression at the external angle of the eye, betwixt the zygomatic process and the organ in question, especially when the muscles are thin. In such cases, it has sometimes appeared as high up as Tune generally occurs. This slight variation from uniform situation occurs in the distribution of all the parts of the

body; but the anatomist is not, on this account, embarrassed in his operations; for the aberration never exceeds certain limits, and he acquires, by experience, the tact of recognising the part by its general appearance.

It has been objected, that the elevation or depression of this part of the brain depends upon the force with which the temporal muscles, which lie over it, have acted in the individual; and it is said that carnivorous animals which masticate bones, and in consequence possess those muscles in a very powerful degree, have narrow heads, and little brain in the region of this organ.

The answer to this is fourfold; 1st, Carnivorous animals do not build, and the organ in question is wanting in them. The organ being absent, their heads are narrow of course; but all this is in exact accordance with Phrenology. 2dly, In the beaver, which cuts timber with its teeth, and in which the temporal muscles act with great energy, the organ is large, and the head is broad; which also harmonizes with our doctrine, and contradicts that of the objectors. 3dly, In the human race, the size of the head, at the region in question, which indicates the size of the organ, does not bear a proportion to the force with which mastication is performed; for some individuals, who live chiefly on slops, and chew little, have narrow heads, and weak constructive talents, while others, who eat hard viands, have broad heads, and manifest great mechanical skill; and, 4thly, The actual size of the head in this quarter, from whatever cause it arises, bears a regular proportion to the actual endowment of constructive genius.

The temporal muscle differs in thickness in different persons, and the phrenologist ought to desire the individual observed to move the lower jaw, and, while he does so, to feel the muscle, and allow for its size. The uncertainty in regard to the dimensions of the temporal muscle, renders it unsafe to predicate the size of the organs of Constructiveness and Acquisitiveness from casts of the head, unless information as to the thickness of the fleshy fibres is com


municated. This organ, therefore, is best established, by
examining living heads, or skulls, or casts of skulls.

When Dr GALL first turned his attention to the talent
for construction, manifested by some individuals, he had
not discovered the fact, that every primitive faculty is con-
nected with a particular part of the brain as its organ; and,
on this account, he directed his observations towards the
whole head of great mechanicians. He was frequently
struck with the circumstance, that the heads of such ar-
tists were as large in the temporal region as at the cheek
bones. This, however, although occurring frequently, was
not a certain and infallible characteristic; and hence he
was led by degrees to believe, that the talent depended on
a particular power. To discover a particular indication of
it in the head, he sought acquaintance with men of distin-
guished mechanical genius, wherever he found them, stu-
died the forms of their heads, and moulded them. He soon
met some in whom the diameter from temple to temple was
greater than that from the one zygomatic bone to the
other; and at last found two celebrated mechanicians, in
whom there appeared two swellings, round and distinct at
the temples. These heads convinced him, that it is not the
circumstance of equality in the zygomatic and temporal
diameters, which indicates a genius for mechanical con-
struction, but a round protuberance in the temporal re-
gion, situated in some individuals a little behind, in others
a little behind and above the eye. This development is al-
ways found in concomitance with great constructive talent,
and when the zygomatic diameter is equal to it, then there
is a parallelism of the face; but, as the zygomatic bone is
not connected with the organ, and projects more or less in
different individuals, this form of countenance is not in-
variably the concomitant of constructive talent, and ought
not to be taken as the measure of the development of the


Having thus obtained some idea of the seat and exter-
appearance of the organ, Dr GALL assiduously multi-


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