being and comfort just such a faculty as this, which should enable them to maintain their position with ease, and at the same time to provide for their food and safety. The eagle, which loves to soar aloft, requires certain faculties to be exerted to maintain his equilibrium, while at the same time his eye darts at once over a great expanse "through the azure deep of air," to discern his prey on the surface of the earth. There are farther required a concentration and simultaneous action of numerous faculties in the stoop which he makes upon the prey itself, and in pouncing at once upon the bird or lamb which he has selected for his victim. Something of the same kind is required in the water-fowl, whose cradle is the deep, in diving for his food through the waters. The co-operation of all his powers must be required to keep him in that situation, and at the same time enable him to secure what he wishes for food, and avoid his numerous enemies. In this way I conceive that the new functions attributed to this organ do not supersede the old, nor imply any incorrectness in the observations which led Dr SPURZHEIM to conjecture its uses; at the same time there may be a modification in the faculty itself in different species of animals, which may determine some to high and some to low situations; while in man it may be a more general faculty, without determining to a residence of any particular kind.

The strongest expression of this faculty which I have observed is in rope-dancers. Their countenances shew a great internal effort of mental concentration, watching and directing the slightest motions of the body; and in the head of DUCROW, of which the Phrenological Society has a cast, the organ is very large. He manifests the faculty in the highest degree.

The leading object of these discussions is to enable the reader to form an idea of the mental quality, if it be such, intended to be designated by Concentrativeness, so that he may be able to decide on the function of the organ by his own observations. It acts along with the feelings as

well as with the intellect, and prolongs emotions. Abstract reasoning is not admitted in Phrenology as proof in favour of any organ or faculty; and I have observed that, by leading the mind insensibly to adopt a conclusion for or against particular ideas, it produces a tendency to seek support for opinions rather than truth, and thereby retards the progress of accurate investigation.-The function is stated as only probable, and stands open for further elucidation.


THIS organ is situated at the middle of the posterior edge of the parietal bone, on each side of Concentrativeness, higher up than Philoprogenitiveness, and just above the lambdoidal suture. When very large, two annular protuberances will be observed there; or a general fulness, if the neighbouring organs be large; when small, that part of the head is narrow or depressed.

Dr GALL was requested to mould for his collection the head of a lady, who was described to him as a model of friendship. He did so, more through complaisance, than in expectation of making any discovery. In examining the head, he found two large prominences, in the form of a segment of a circle, on the sides of the organ of Philoprogenitiveness. These prominences, which he had not previously observed, were symmetrical, and manifestly formed by part of the brain; and he therefore concluded, that they indicated organs; but the question was, what are their functions? He inquired at the friends of the lady concerning her dispositions and talents, and also obtained her own opinion of the feelings and capacities which she most strongly possessed. All the information concurred in regard to the fact, that she was distinguished by inviolable attachment to her friends. Although at different periods of her life, her fortune had undergone great changes, and on several occasions she had passed from poverty to riches,

her affection for her former friends was never forgotten. The idea naturally presented itself, that the disposition to attachment might be connected with a particular part of the brain. This inference acquired greater probability from the circumstance, that the prominences on the head of this lady were placed immediately above the organ of sexual love, and on the two sides of that of the love of children, and that the three feelings have obviously some analogy to each other. Many subsequent observations confirmed this conjecture, and the organ has long been regarded as established.

The faculty gives the instinctive tendency to attachment, and causes us to experience the greatest delight in a retur of affection. Those in whom it is large, feel an involuntary impulse to embrace, and cling to any object which is capable of experiencing fondness. It gives ardour and a firm grasp to the shake with the hand. In boys, it frequently displays itself by attachment to dogs, rabbits, birds, horses, or other animals. In girls, it adds fondness to the embraces bestowed upon the doll. The feelings which it inspires abound in the poetry of MOORE. He beautifully describes its effects in the following lines:

"The heart, like a tendril accustomed to cling,

Let it grow where it will cannot flourish alone;
But will lean to the nearest and loveliest thing,
It can twine with itself, and make closely its own."

It also inspires the verse,

"The heart that loves truly, love never forgets,
But as truly loves on to the close;

As the sun-flower turns to her god as he sets,
The same look that she turned when he rose."

The old Scotch ballad, "There's nae luck about the house," breathes the very spirit of this faculty.

The organ is generally larger, and the faculty stronger, in women than in men; and the extreme constancy with which, in general, they adhere to the objects of their attachment may be attributed to this faculty. "Man boasts

of his capacity for friendship," says Mr SCOTT, "and falsely speaks of its joys as the purest of all human enjoyments. But it is only in the heart of feeling, confiding, generous woman, that friendship is to be found in all the fulness of perfection. It was part of the doom pronounced upon her at the fall, that her desire should be to her husband, and that he should rule over her;' and, conformably to the first clause in this sentence, we find Adhesiveness to be, in general, far more powerful in the woman than in the man. The most generous and friendly man is selfish in comparison with woman. There is no friend like a loving and affectionate wife. Man may love, but it is always with a reserve, and with a view to his own gratification; but when a woman bestows her love, she does it with her heart and soul."-Phren. Journ. vol. ii. p. 280.

Even in the most degraded criminals, this faculty sometimes manifests itself with a fervour and constancy of affection worthy of a better fate. MARY MACINNES, executed in Edinburgh for murder, had gained the affection of a person whose name need not here be mentioned; and her attachment to him continued strong in death, and assumed even a romantic appearance in the last moments of her mortal career. He had sent her a pocket-handkerchief, having his name written in one corner, and also half an orange, with a desire that she would eat the latter on the scaffold, in token of their mutual affection, he having eaten. the other half the preceding morning at the corresponding hour. She held the corner of the napkin in her mouth almost all the night preceding her execution, and even on the scaffold. When seated on the drop, the turnkey gave her the half orange. She took it out of his hand, and, without the least symptom of fear, said, "Tell him (the object of her attachment) that I die perfectly satisfied that he has done all in his power for my life, and that I eat the orange as he desired me. May God bless him. Say to him that it is my dying request that he may take care of drink and bad company, and be sure never to be late out at night."

She seemed to forget eternity in the ardour of her attachment to earth. The organ is very large in the cast of her head.-Phren. Trans. p. 376.

This great proneness to, and ardour in, attachment on the part of the female sex, render those men doubly guilty, who, on the false hypothesis that affection readily and warmly bestowed, may be lightly withdrawn and directed to another, sport with this beautiful trait of female nature, and gain the affections of women, to betray their honour, or gratify a silly vanity by being loved.

There is a great difference among individuals in regard to the strength of this feeling. Some men have many acquaintances but no friends; while others remain attached to certain individuals during every change of circumstances, and do not readily enlarge the circle of their intimates. When the organ is large, great delight is felt in friendship and attachment, the idea of distant friends often presents itself, and the glow of affection rushes into the mind, with all the warmth and vivacity of a passion. Those in whom it is small care little for friendship; out of sight, out of mind, is their maxim. We frequently see individuals of very different characters and genius, lastingly attached to each other. This faculty, strong in both, seems to me to be the bond of union. They perhaps feel many points of repulsion, and are not happy if too long and too closely united; but still, on being separated, they experience a longing for each other's society, which makes them forget and forgive every thing to obtain its gratification. There are husbands and wives who cannot live together, and yet who become miserable when long separated. I conceive this to arise from large Adhesiveness in both, combined with other faculties in each, which do not harmonize.

This faculty is clearly distinguishable from Benevolence, for many persons are prone to attachment who are not generous. It, however, has a more extensive influence than the production of friendship among individuals, and appears to give rise to the instinctive tendency to congregate, whence

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