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large. Dr MURRAY PATERSON states, that the Hindoos, both male and female, are highly endowed with this feeling; -it is manifested by them, he says, "in their predilection for domestic quiet; in the happiness they seem to feel when surrounded by their children; in the spirit of their lullabies, and in their frequent and ardent embraces." Out of twelve Hindoo skulls originally in the possession of the Phrenological Society, eleven have this organ largely developed, and only one moderately so, and subsequent additions shew the same result.
The feeling in question, so necessary for the preservation and continuance of the species, is found strong in the most savage tribes. The organ is decidedly large, even in the easts of the skulls of the Caribs, unquestionably the most unfavourably organized, in other respects, of all the races of which we possess any knowledge. Out of five casts of Carib skulls in the Phrenological Society's collection, one has the organ very large, three have it large, and the remaining one rather full. This
tribe appears, from their cerebral development, and the accounts of travellers and historians with regard to their manners and character, to be endued with the most brutal ferocity, totally unregulated either by benevolence or intellect; and, unless they possessed an instinctive propensity, prompting them to take care of their children, they would soon become extinct, without the intervention of famine, pestilence, or an exterminating enemy. A satisfactory answer is here afforded to those cavillers, who object that there is no necessity for such a propensity as this, as the feeling of Benevolence alone would be sufficient to prompt parents to bestow the requisite care on their offspring. We have only to point to the Caribs, and say, What reliance could be placed on the benevolence of such beings? And yet they show attachment to their young, and submit to the inconveniences of rearing them, amidst all the toils, privations, and hardships, that abound in savage life.
This, like the other cerebral organs, is liable to disease, and derangement in the manifestations of the propensity is the consequence. Sometimes the most painful anxiety is felt about children, without any adequate external cause, and this arises from involuntary activity of the organ.
Dr ANDREW COMBE attended a woman, while labouring under a temporary alienation of mind, whose constant exclamations during three days, which the fit lasted, were about her children-she imagined that they were in distress, murdered, carried away, exposed to every calamity. On recovery she complained of having a pain in the hind part of her head during the attack, pointing to the situation of Philoprogenitiveness; but she had no other recollection of what had passed. She was altogether unacquainted with Phrenology.
Dr GALL mentions a case of a woman in the great hospital at Vienna, who was seized with a very peculiar kind of madness—maintaining that she was about to be delivered of six children. He was led, by his previous observations, to conjecture that this hallucination was owing in part to a great development, and partly to an over-excitement of the organ of Philoprogenitiveness. The patient died, and he mentions that the development of this organ in her head was quite extraordinary. The posterior lobes of the brain not only overhung the cerebellum more than is usual in females, but were rounded and voluminous in a very remarkable degree. At Paris, Dr GALL attended a young lady of perfect modesty, who laboured under mental disease. She lived in the best society, and went to Vienna accompanied by some most respectable friends. She had hardly arrived, when she ran to all her acquaintances, and announced to them, with the most lively joy and in the openest manner, that she was pregnant. The circumstances of this declaration, and the known character of the lady, were sufficient to lead her friends to conclude her to be insane. In a short time her joy gave place to anguish of mind, and to a mournful and invincible taciturnity. Soon afterwards she
died of consumption.
Dr GALL relates, that he has examined, with all the attention in his power, the skulls of birds, from the smallest up to the greatest, and of mammiferous animals, from the shrewmouse to the elephant, and has found throughout, that, in the females, the cerebral part, which corresponds to the organ of Philoprogenitiveness in the human species, is more developed than in the males. He says, that if there had been presented to him, in water, the fresh brains of two adult animals of any species, one male and the other female, he could have distinguished the two sexes. In the male, the cerebellum is larger and the posterior lobes of the brain are smaller. In the female, on the contrary, the cerebellum is smaller, and the posterior lobes, or the convolutions connected with this function, are larger and longer. When these two organs are distinctly marked in the cranium, the two sexes may be distinguished by the simple inspection of the skull. In those species where the sexes differ very much in their regard for their young, the crania differ sometimes so much in their form, that they have been placed in collections as belonging to different varieties of the same species, though in fact they belonged to individuals of the same variety, but of different sexes.
Dr GALL adduces innumerable facts in support of this proposition; but as these can hardly be made intelligible, with
out the assistance of plates, I must refer those who wish to pursue this inquiry to his work, to that of Mons. VIMONT, and to observations in nature. In pursuing it, the utmost patience and attention are necessary, in order to avoid mistakes. The differences will be found uniformly greatest in those species of which the males pay no regard to their young; but it requires a practised eye and great attention, to discern the difference in classes, of which both the male and female bestow care on their offspring. There is, however, a marked difference in this respect, even in females of the same species, who are fondest of their their young. Every cottager knows, and can distinguish in her poultry-yard, particular female fowls, ducks, geese, and turkeys, who cover their eggs and bring up their young ones with the greatest care, while there are others who spoil their nests, and neglect or abandon their young. On comparing the heads of the animals who show these opposite qualities, a decided difference of conformation will be found in the organ of Philoprogenitiveness.-Those, therefore, who wish to form collections with this view, should know not only the natural history of the species, but the peculiar disposition of the individuals selected.
Almost all metaphysical writers admit the Love of Children as an instinctive propensity of the human mind. Phrenological observation points out the organ, and the effects of its different degrees of development, and also of its healthy and sound state, on the manifestations of the feeling; and to this extent adds to the stock of general knowledge. The following cuts represent the organ large and small: It is marked No. 2.
It is proper to bear in mind, that these and all other con
trasts, are given in this work not to prove Phrenology to be true, but merely to represent the appearances of the organs in different degrees of development.-Established.
THE organ is situated immediately above Philoprogenitiveness, and below Self-Esteem. A bony excrescence of the suture sometimes presents itself at this part, which may be mistaken for the organ of Concentrativeness; but the former is much narrower and more pointed than the elevation caused by the latter, when it is large. A cerebral convolution in each hemisphere runs along the top of the corpus callosum, from the organs of Concentrativeness and Self-Esteem, to the intellectual organs in the frontal lobe.
Observation proves that this is a distinct organ, because it is sometimes found large, when the organs of Philoprogenitiveness and Self-Esteem lying below and above it are small, and sometimes small when these are large. Dr GALL did not discover its function. Dr SPURZHEIM observed it to be large in those animals and persons who seemed attached to particular places. "I consider," says he, "in animals, the cerebral part immediately above the organ of Philoprogenitiveness, as the organ of the instinct that prompts them to select a peculiar dwelling, and call it the organ of Inhabitiveness. My attention has been and is still directed to such individuals of the human kind as shew a particular disposition in regard to their dwelling-place. Some nations are extremely attached to their country, while others are readily induced to migrate. Some tribes wander about without fixed habitations, while others have a settled home. Mountaineers are commonly much attached to their native soil, and those of them who visit capitals or foreign countries, seem chiefly led by the hope of gaining money enough to return home, and buy a little property, even though the land should be dearer there than elsewhere. I therefore invite the phrenologists, who have