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company the organs set down as established; their differences touch only the result of the metaphysical analysis of the feelings and intellectual powers, and the order of their arrangement.
I shall notice briefly the history of the discovery of each organ, and state a few cases in illustration of its function: but the reader is respectfully informed, that I do not pretend to bring forward the evidence on which Phrenology is founded. I beg to refer those readers who are fond of perusing cases, to Dr GALL's quarto work, in 4 volumes, entitled, "Physiologie du Cerveau;" to Dr SPURZHEIM'S work, "Phrenology;" to the "Transactions of the Phrenological Society;" and to the "Phrenological Journal and Miscellany." Those persons who desire philosophical conviction, are requested to resort directly to Nature, which is always within their reach; for SELF-CONVICTION CAN BE
OBTAINED ONLY BY SELF-OBSERVATION.
THE faculties falling under this genus do not form ideas; their sole function is to produce a propensity of a specific kind. These faculties are common to Man with Animals.
THE Cerebellum is the organ of this propensity, and it is situated between the mastoid process on each side, and the projecting point in the middle of the transverse ridge of the occipital bone. The size is indicated during life by the thickness of the neck at these parts *, or between the ears. In some individuals the lobes of the cerebellum descend downwards, enlarging the base of the occipital bone, rather than increasing its expansion between the ears. In such cases the projection may be felt by the hand, if pressed firmly on the neck.
There is nearly half an inch of space between the cerebellum and the commencement of the posterior lobe of the brain, at the insertion of what is called the Tentorium.
Partes genitales, sive testes hominibus et fœminis uterus, propensionem ad venerem excitare nequeunt. Nam in pueris veneris stimulus seminis secretioni sæpè antecedit. Plures eunuchi, quanquam testibus privati, hanc inclinationem conservant. Sunt etiam fœminæ quæ sine utero natæ, hunc stimulum manifestant. Hinc quidam ex doctrinæ nostræ inimicis, harum rerum minime inscii, seminis præsentiam in sanguine contendunt, et hanc causam sufficientem existimant. Attamen argumenta hujus generis verâ physiologiâ longè absunt, et vix citatione digna videntur. Nonnulli etiam hujus inclinationis causam in liquore prostatico quærunt; sed in senibus aliquando fluidi prostatici secretio, sine ulla veneris inclinatione, copiosissima est.-Spurzheim's Phrenology, p. 123.
The Tentorium is a strong membrane, which separates the cerebellum from the brain; in animals which leap, as the cat and tiger, the separation is produced by a thin plate of bone. The cerebellum is, however, connected with the brain; for its fibres originate in the corpora restiformia, from which also the organs of the other animal propensities arise. Certain fibres originating in that source, after passing through the optic thalami, expand into the organs of Philoprogenitiveness, Adhesiveness, Combativeness, Destructiveness, &c. The nerves of sight can be traced into the nates, lying very near the same parts; while the nerves of hearing spring from the medullary streaks on the surface of the fourth ventricle, lying immediately under the cerebellum. These arrangements of structure correspond with the facts, that the eyes express more powerfully than the other senses, the passion of love; that abuses of this propensity produce blindness and deafness; and, that this feeling frequently excites Adhesiveness, Combativeness and Destructiveness, into vivid action, rendering attachment irresistibly strong, and inspiring even females, who, in ordinary circumstances, are timid and retiring, with courage and determination when under its influence. The cerebellum consists of three portions, a central and two lateral. The central is in direct communication with the corpora restiformia, and the
two lateral portions are brought into communication with each other by the pons Varolii.
Dr GALL was led to the discovery of this organ in the following manner. He was physician to a widow of irreproachable character, who was seized with nervous affections, to which succeeded severe nymphomania. In the violence of a paroxysm, he supported her head, and was struck with the large size and heat of the neck. She stated, that heat and tension of these parts always preceded a paroxysm. He followed out, by numerous observations, the idea suggested by this occurrence, of connexion betwixt the propensity and the cerebellum, and he soon established the point to his own satisfaction.
The faculty gives rise to the sexual feeling. In newborn children, the cerebellum is the least developed of all the cerebral parts. At this period, the upper and posterior part of the neck, corresponding to the small cerebellum, appears attached almost to the middle of the base of the skull. The cerebellum is then to the brain as one to thirteen, fifteen or twenty. In adults, it is as one to six, seven or eight. It attains its full size between the age of eighteen and twenty-six. The neck then appears greatly more expanded behind. The cerebellum is less in females, in general, than in males. In old age it frequently diminishes. There is no constant proportion betwixt the brain and it in all individuals, just as there is no invariable proportion betwixt this feeling and the other powers of the mind. Sometimes, however, the cerebellum is largely developed before the age of puberty. This was the case in a child of three years of age, in a boy of five, and in one of twelve; and they all manifested the feeling strongly. In the cast of the skull of Dr HETTE, sold in the shops, the development is small, and the feeling corresponded. In the casts of MITCHELL, Dean, and RAPHAEL, it is very large, and the manifestations were in proportion. Farther evidence of the functions of this organ will be found in Dr GALL'S "Physiologie du Cerveau;" and several cases are mentioned in the
following works, viz. "Journal of Pathological Observations kept at the Hospital of the Ecole de Médécine, No. 108, 15th July 1817," case of Jean Michel Brigaud; "Journal of the Hôtel Dieu," case of Florat, 19th March 1819, and of a woman, 11th November 1818; " WEPFERUS, Historiæ apoplecticorum," edit. 1724, page 487; Philosophical Transactions," No. 228, case by Dr TvSON; "Mémoires de Chirurgie Militaire, et Campagnes,' by Baron LARREY, vol. ii. p. 150, vol. iii. p. 262; "SERRES on Apoplexy;" "RICHERAND'S Elements of Physiology," pp. 379, 380, KERRISON'S Translation; "Dr SPURZHEIM'S Phrenology," p. 130.
"It is impossible," says Dr SPURZHEIM, "to unite a greater number of proofs in demonstration of any natural truth, than may be presented to determine the function of the cerebellum ;" and in this I completely agree with him. Those who have not read Dr GALL's section on this organ, can form no adequate conception of the force of the evidence which he has collected.
M. FLOURENS has lately performed some experiments on the lower animals, chiefly by inflicting injuries on their cerebella, and contends that these experiments shew that the cerebellum serves for the regulation of muscular motion. "On removing the cerebellum," says he, "the animal loses the power of executing combined movements." MAGENDIE performed similar experiments on the cerebellum, and found that they only occasion an irresistible tendency in the animal to run, walk, or swim, backwards. He made experiments, also, on the corpora striata and tubercula quadrigemina, with the following results: When one part of these was cut, the animal rolled; when another, it went forward, and extended its head and extremities; when another, it bent all these: so that, according to this mode of determining the cerebral functions, these parts of the brain possess an equal claim with the cerebellum, to be regarded as the regulators of motion. The fact is, that all parts of the nervous system are so intimately connected, that the