manifestations occur through inactivity; but present an external stimulus, and the power will appear. If the brain be very small, any degree of stimulus may be presented external or internal, and great power will not be manifested.

A certain combination in size, namely, Combativeness, Destructiveness, Hope, Firmness, Acquisitiveness, and Love of Approbation, all large, is favourable to general activity; and another combination, namely Combativeness, Destructiveness, Firmness, and Acquisitiveness, small or moderate, with Hope, Veneration, and Benevolence, all large, is frequently attended with inactivity in the mental character; but the activity of the whole brain is constitutionally greater in some individuals than in others, as already explained. It may even happen, that, in the same individual, one organ is naturally more active than another, without reference to size; just as the optic nerve is sometimes more irritable than the auditory; but this is by no means a common occurrence. Exercise greatly increases activity; and hence arise the benefits of education. Dr SPURZHEIM thinks that "long fibres produce more activity, and thick fibres more intensity."

The doctrine that size is a measure of power, is not to be held as implying, that power is the only, or even the most valuable quality, which a mind in all circumstances can possess. To drag artillery over a mountain, or a ponderous car through the streets of London, we would prefer an elephant, or a horse of great size and muscular power; while, for graceful motion, agility and nimbleness, we would select an Arabian palfrey. In like manner, to lead men in gigantic and difficult enterprises,-to command by native greatness, in perilous times, when law is trampled under foot,-to call forth the energies of a people, and direct them against a tyrant at home, or an alliance of tyrants abroad,—to stamp the impress of a single mind upon an age,-to infuse strength into thoughts, and depth into feelings, which shall command the homage of enlightened men in every period of time,-in short, to be a BRUCE,

BUONAPARTE, LUTHER, KNOX, DEMOSTHENES, SHAKSPEARE OF MILTON, a large brain is indispensably requisite; but to display skill, enterprise, and fidelity, in the various professions of civil life,-to cultivate, with success, the less arduous branches of philosophy,-to excel in acuteness, taste, and felicity of expression,-to acquire extensive erudition and refined manners, a brain of a moderate size is perhaps more suitable than one that is very large; for whereever the energy is intense, it is rare that delicacy, refinement, and taste, are present in an equal degree. Individuals possessing moderate-sized brains easily find their proper sphere, and enjoy in it scope for all their energy. In ordinary circumstances, they distinguish themselves; but sink when difficulties accumulate around them. Persons with large brains, on the other hand, do not readily attain their appropriate place; common occurrences do not rouse or call them forth; and, while unknown, they are not trusted with great undertakings. Often, therefore, such men pine and die in obscurity. When, however, they attain their proper element, they feel conscious greatness, and they glory in the expansion of their powers. Their mental energies rise in proportion to the obstacles to be surmounted, and blaze forth in all the magnificence of genius on occasions when feebler minds would expire in despair.

The term Faculty is used to denote a particular power of feeling or thinking, connected with a particular part of the brain. Phrenologists consider Man by himself, and also compare him with other animals. When the lower animals manifest the same propensities and feelings as those displayed by man, the faculties which produce them are held to be common to both. A faculty is admitted as primitive,

1. Which ex sts in one kind of animals, and not in another;

2. Which varies in the two sexes of the same species;

3. Which is not proportionate to the other faculties of the same individual;

4. Which does not manifest itself simultaneously with the other faculties; that is, which appears and disappears earlier or later in life than other faculties;

5. Which may act or rest singly;

6. Which is propagated in a distinct manner from parents to children; and,

7. Which may singly preserve its proper state of health or disease

As phrenological observation establishes the existence of a plurality of mental faculties, each connected with a particular part of the brain, the question occurs, Is the mind simple, or an aggregate of separate powers +? It is extremely difficult to give a satisfactory answer to this inquiry. Looking at the facts presented to us by observation, the most obvious inference seems to be, that the mind consists of an aggregate of powers, and that one of them supplies the feeling of personal Identity, or the I of Consciousness, to which, as their substance, all the other feelings and capacities bear reference. This view is strongly supported by some of the phenomena of insanity; for patients are sometimes insane in the feeling of personal identity, and in no other faculty of the mind. Such individuals lose all consciousness of their past and proper personality, and imagine themselves different persons altogether; while, with the exception of this erroneous impression, they feel and think correctly. Under the head of Memory, in a subsequent part of this work, an abstract will be found of a case of divided personality, occurring through disease, reported by Dr DYCE of Aberdeen to Dr. Henry Dewar, and by him published in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. A similar case is stated in "The Medical Repository," communicated by Dr MITCHELL to the Reverend Dr NOTT, dated January 1816. "When I was employed," says he, early in December Phrenology by Dr SPURZHEIM, p. 126. + See Phren. Jour. vol. i. p. 205.

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1815, with several other gentlemen, in doing the duty of a visitor to the United States Military Academy at West Point, a very extraordinary case of Double Consciousness in a woman, was related to me by one of the professors. Major Ellicott, who so worthily occupies the mathematical chair in that seminary, vouched for the correctness of the following narrative, the subject of which is related to him by blood, and an inhabitant of one of the western counties of Pennsylvania:-Miss R- possessed, naturally, a very good constitution, and arrived at adult age without having it impaired by disease. She possessed an excellent capacity, and enjoyed fair opportunities to acquire knowledge. Besides the domestic arts and social attainments, she had improved her mind by reading and conversation, and was well versed in penmanship. Her memory was capacious, and stored with a copious stock of ideas. Unexpectedly, and without any forewarning, she fell into a profound sleep, which continued several hours beyond the ordinary term. On waking, she was discovered to have lost every trait of acquired knowledge. Her memory was tabula rasa,—all vestiges, both of words and things, were obliterated and gone. It was found necessary for her to learn every thing again. She even acquired, by new efforts, the art of spelling, reading, writing, and calculating, and gradually became acquainted with the persons and objects around, like a being for the first time brought into the world. In these exercises she made considerable proficiency. But, after a few months, another fit of somnolency invaded her. On rousing from it, she found herself restored to the state she was in before the first paroxysm; but was wholly ignorant of every event and occurrence that had befallen her afterwards. The former condition of her existence, she now calls the Old State, and the latter the New State; and she is as unconscious of her double character as two distinct persons are of their respective natures. For example, in her old state, she possesses all her original knowledge; in her new state only what she acquired since.

If a gentleman or lady be introduced to her in the old state, and vice versa, (and so of all other matters), to know them satisfactorily she must learn them in both states. In the old state, she possesses fine powers of penmanship, while in the new, she writes a poor awkward hand, having not had time or means to become expert. During four years and upwards, she has undergone periodical transitions from one of these states to the other. The alterations are always consequent upon a long and sound sleep. Both the lady and her family are now capable of conducting the affair without embarrassment. By simply knowing whether she is in the old or new state, they regulate the intercourse, and govern themselves accordingly. A history of her curious case is drawing up by the Reverend TIMOTHY ALDIN of Meadville." Such cases as the foregoing, have led some persons to the inference, that the feeling of personal Identity is a primitive mental affection, connected with a particular organ, and hence liable separately to disease; and because we have ascertained that each of the other primitive feelings and intellectual powers is also manifested by a separate organ, the mind has appeared to them to consist of an aggregate of powers acting together. This view corresponds with the apprehension of mankind in general, for popular language is framed on the principle of the I of Consciousness being distinct from the other mental affections. We speak of evil thoughts intruding themselves into our mind; and of our having strong desires which we forbear to indulge. In such expressions, the our and we seem to mean the principle of personal identity; and the evil thoughts and desires appear to be regarded as affections of that principle, originating in sources distinct from it, and different from one another.

The more general opinion of philosophers is, that the mind is a simple and indivisible substance, and that the several faculties are merely different states of it. This view is espoused by my excellent friend the Reverend DAVID WELSH, who successfully shews, that it is consistent with

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