The Naval Policy of Austria-Hungary, 1867-1918: Navalism, Industrial Development, and the Politics of Dualism
Purdue University Press, 1994 - 441 pagina's
The Austro-Hungarian navy warrants recognition because it functioned far better than most organs of the multinational Habsburg state. Ultimately, in the pre-World War I age of navalism, the fleet provided a unique common cause for a wide variety of nationalities and political parties. Dramatic funding increases fueled the expansion of the fleet, and lucrative naval contracts, judiciously distributed, reinforced and further broadened the navy's base of support. Though often criticized by its German ally, the Austro-Hungarian navy succeeded in defending the Adriatic throughout World War I, in the process requiring the constant attention of a significant share of enemy sea power; as late as the spring of 1918, an American admiral characterized the Adriatic as "an Austrian lake." The navy collapsed only when Austria-Hungary as a whole disintegrated, in the last days of the war. This detailed study charts the uneven growth of the Austro-Hungarian navy from its high point following Archduke Ferdinand Max's administration and the War of 1866 to its ultimate dissolution after World War I. In following this development, Sondhaus not only relates the operational aspects of the Habsburg navy but also traces the growth of popular navalism in Austria-Hungary, the role of naval expansion in stimulating industrial development, and the peculiar difficulties of navy commanders in dealing with the Habsburg nationality problem and the cumbersome politics of Austro-Hungarian dualism. Drawing on a vast variety of archival sources and government documents and protocols, Sondhaus analyzes economic factors carefully and shows how these tended to complicate, perhaps even to override, political divisions. He ably demonstrates how such varied factors as the wavering policy of Italy, French naval theory, the need for consensus within the Dual Monarchy, and the general European escalation in naval armaments influenced the fortunes of the fleet.
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aboard Adriatic archduke armored cruisers army Austria-Hungary Austrian Austro-Hungarian navy Austro-Hungarian Warships Austro-Italian Balkan battle fleet battleships Bayer von Bayersburg British Budapest budget Captain casemate ships Cattaro command construction Delegations destroyers dreadnoughts Dual Monarchy emperor enemy Entente Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand February Ferdinand Max flotilla Francis Ferdinand Francis Joseph French frigate German guns Habsburg navy Halpern harbor Haus Haus's HHSA Horthy Hungarian Hungary Ibid included ironclads Italian navy Italy Italy's Jahresbericht der k.u.k. Jeune Ecole k.u.k. Kriegsmarine Kaiser Karl Koudelka Kriegsmarine light cruisers Lissa Marine Marinekommandant Marinesektion million gulden million kronen Montecuccoli navy's Njegovan October officer corps Osterreich Osterreich-Ungarns Seekrieg percent Pock Pock's Pola Pola Arsenal political port pre-dreadnoughts Prinz Eugen Radetzky ram cruiser Rear Admiral Rijeka seamen shipyard Sieche Skoda Sokol Sondhaus Spaun squadron Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino Sterneck StPD submarine Tegetthoff Thaon di Revel tons torpedo boats Trieste Triple Alliance unarmored vessels Vice Admiral Vienna Yugoslav
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