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Art. I.-Grammar of the Hebrew Language. By Moses
STUART, Associate Professor of Sacred Literature in the Theological Institution, at Andover. Third Edition, 1828.
The Hebrew Language must always be an object of great interest to civilized nations, and still more to those who profess the Christian religion. In it have been preserved the oldest records which exist of the transactions of the human race, and the foundations of our faith. We rejoice to perceive that its study is extending in our country, and that works calculated to facilitate its acquisition, are already issuing from our press, one of these we propose to examine.
The limited space which we can allot to grammatical discussions, particularly when they relate to a language, which though highly important, is yet but little studied, will not permit us to review every part of the work before us. We shall, therefore, confine our observations to one important point, the construction and conjugation of the verbs.- In page 73: “$174. The usual conjugations of the verbs, are as follows :
Passive and Reflective.
) קטל הָקְטַל הִקְטַל
.התגולל Hithpoel 3 סובב Poil 2 כוכב a) 1 Poel)"
.c& "התְקוֹמֵם Hithpolel 3 .קוֹמַם Polal 2 קוֹמֵם Polel
“[$ 175.] Peculiar conjugations. The conjugations frequent only in certain classes of verbs, are, "() i 3 .
“ These conjugations are found in the class named Ayin doubled (VÝ) and very rarely appear in any other. They take the place of Piel, Pual, and Hithpael, as these appear in regular verbs ; see 262.
“(6) In verbs Ayin Vav (W $ 269), forms similar in appearance are common substitutes for the regular Piel, Pual and Hithpael; viz: 1 ).
. 3 The grammarians do not agree in the number of the conjugations; many, to whose opinion the author of the Grammar before us seems to adhere, constitute only seven enumerat ed above; some admit eight, viz. beside these seven, one active which they name the quadriliteral conjugation, of which Hithpael is derived. Their objections to seven, as well as their reasons for eight, we suspect, are the following:
It is highly improbable that three out of seven conjugations shall be wanting in two important classes of numerous verbs y and 11. It is at the same time incorrect to substitute for them, others in different irregular shapes and structure, whilst, these verbs are to be found : sometimes only in their original structure of Piel, Pual, and Hithpael (see table in the Appendix,) sometimes only in the quadriliteral forms, (see Appendix) and sometimes in both forms at once. which the author of our work exhibits as an example in his Paradigm, p. 208, is found in both forms, quadriliteral and common, (see Appendix.) Also the verb Dip represented by the author in his Paradigm p. 210, is found both in common Piel,
13922 (Ps. cxix. 28,) as well as in a quadrıliteral form Drip (Isa. xliv. 26,) and there exist even regular verbs in quadriliteral forms, as: (. ) (. ) (Job, xx. 26.) of verbs 3.
In the Appendix, we shall exhibit a table of all verbs in yv; it is unnecessary to draw up one of verbs 1 as they are plainly to be seen in all correct Lexicons. The small space allowed will only permit us to furnish the reader with one instance from the Bible, for every form in the table at the Appendix.
"§ 173, (b) In Hebrew grammar, the word conjugation is applied to different forms of the same verb, and corresponds in some degree with the term voice in Greek grammar, although it is employed in a much more extensive sense. T'he passive and middle voices, in Greek, exhibit the original idea of the verb under certain modifications, or with
סבב Even the verb
תְּאָכְלֵהוּ (.15 .Job, ix) לִמְשֹׁפְטִי (.5 .Ps. ci) מְלָוֹשְׁנִי
some additional shades of meaning. So the property of all the conjugations in Hebrew, is to vary the primary meaning of the verb, by uniting with it an accessory signification. The Hebrews were thus enabled to express, by means of their conjugations, all those various modifications and relations of verbs, which, in most other languages, are expressed either by composite verbs, or by several words.
(Note.) “ The most convenient arrangement is, to make as many conjugations as there are forms of verbs, original and derived. These are presented to view in the following section.'
There are found verbs in the Bible composed first, of two different tenses in one conjugation; secondly, of two different conjugations in one signification; and thirdly, of two different roots and meanings.
To the first class belongs mobing (Gen. xvi. 11.) composed of Kal Praeter m7 and participle nghi and may in the last
; (. )
(.16 .Ezelk. viii) מִשְׁתַּחֲוִיהֶם יְהנָך refer to הָרָה meaning like השתַּחֲוִיתֶם and Praeter משתחוים composed of the participle Kal
-Chaldean version is proud osanno, and consequently it is composed of two different roots one and one. To the second class belong 777? (Ps. vii. 6.) composed of Fut. Kal977 and Fut. Piel 777, the meaning of which may be—"let the enemy he himself persecute and cause or make another persecute;" -750. (1 Chron. iii. 5.) composed of Praeter Niphal 17613, and 175 as Praeter Pual; 17019. (Ezeck. xxii. 48.) composed of Niphel and Hithpael, the Daghesch in the Vav supplies the wanting Tav, and that in the Samech is the mark of the conjugation; the same is with 1933 ? (Deut. xxi. 8.) the Dagbesh in Kaph supplies the wanting of Tav and that in the Pe is the mark of the conjugation ; abges (Isa. lix. 3.) composed of Niphal 15899, and Pual 1581; 0337 (Levit. xiii. 55.) as well as MX07 (Deut. xxvi. 4.) and composed of Hophal and Hithpael, the Dagbesh in the Kaph in the first instance, as well as that in the Teth, in the second instance, are supplies for the wanting Tavs, the Shureq of the He, in both instances, marks the conjugation Haphal
. To the third class may belong ipa (Jer. xv. 10.) composed of the root , contemn, the He changed into Vavma kind of calembourg
“$ 187, (a) Hithpael prefixes 17 to the Inf. form of Piel; e. g lof. Pi. Pop, Hith. Sopn.
undergoes several mutations, when it הת b) The characteristic) ]*
"[(b) o , comes before the Sibilants or the cognate letters. E. g.
“(1) Before a Sibilant, the changes places with it; as in the following examples; viz.
is not only transposed, but changed ת the ,(צ) In the latter case * ,This case, however, is very unfrequent in Hebrew .ט into its cognate
“ (3), N ,
. , , , though common in the cognate languages."
The changing place of the Tav refer almost to all classes of regular and irregular verbs, as
,Participle מתשאה Gen. xxiv.21.) instead of) משתאה (.15 .Sam. xxi 1) מִשְׁתַּגְעַ מתשגע
(.13 .Num. xvi) תשְׂתָּרֵר תתְשָׁרֵר
(.6 .IIaggaii) מְשׂתַּר מתשכר
(.12 .Lam. ii) בְּהִשְׁתַּבֵּךְ בְּהִתְשבֵּךְ
(.23 .Ps. xviii) וָאֶשְׁתַמֵרָ ואתשמר
(.47 .Ps. cvi) לְהִשְׁתַּבֵּחַ לְהִתְשַׁבֵּחַ
- (.19 .Sam. xxiii 1) מכתתר מתסתר
- (.19 .Sam. xxvii 1) מהכתפחַ מההספח
(.11 .Ps. lxxxiv) הסְתּוֹפֵף הִתְסוֹפֵף
.Jer) וְההשוטטנה There is found one exception of this rule
(. xlix. 3.) probably to avoid the sound of three successive bard letters ( Ta.) The last rule of the change of the (3) is found
. (.30.Dan. iv) ,יצטבע ,also in Chaldea
" $ 176. Unusual Conjugations. Most of these are of very rare occurrence; and several of them occur not more than two or three times, in the whole Scriptures. They are as follows; viz:
of Hithpael. Comp. Pual in § 174. They are of very rare occurrence.
“ (1) Hothpaal or Huthpaal
, Supot, Sepn7, both passive forms “(2) Pilel active, and Pulal passive, 5507, 5587, (comp $ 175.
6. Note,) occurring only in five or six cases, in regular verbs.
These are equavalent to the' בָלְכָל and כַּלְכֵּל כול from ; גֶלְגָּל גְלְגֶל
“(3) Pilpel active, and Polpal passive, formed out of verbs yy and ©, by repeating the first and last radicals ; e. g. from 559
, , . forms, from the same verbs, described in § 176. a. b. “(4) A form Tiphel seems to have been in existence; e. g. 70m
, , . a Psoel form ; . “ Note.—Some others are made by some grammarians; but they are disputed ones, and it is of little or no importance to the student to insert them here, as his Lexicon will give him the requisite information."
There is also found (1) a form Iphal—a Syriac one-mbuis (Isia. Ixiii. 3.); (2) a form Ethpael—a Chaldean one-5 Sier (Ps. Ixxvi. 6.); (3) Ethpaal-also Chaldean-Annx (2 Chro. xx. 35.) and (4) a Hithpaal, 7700m (Prov. xxv. 6.)
"$ 181. (a) Kall is generally active ; but it may be either transitive or intransitive."
This rule does not agree with Kal in 727 (Levit. xiii. 20.) used in the same passive sense as the Niphal 27 (Levit. xiii. 25.) neither with the Kal 1859 (Gen. xix. 11.) which has the same meaning as Niphal 1893? (Exod. vii. 18.) nor with Kalm (1 Sam. xvi. 11.) which is as passive as the Niphal 7x09 (Exod. xiv. 28.) also not with Kal 720 (Lam. ii. 11.) which is the same as the Niphal nakna (Ps. cix. 23.) It is, therefore probable, that Kal in intransitive verbs is sometimes used in the same sense as Niphal.
(Note 2.) Some verbs in Kal, have a passive meaning; e. g. 134, to inhabit and to be inhabited ; 17y to elevate, and to be elevated.”
piovn (Isa. xiii. 20.) as well (Jerm. xxxiii. 16, xlvi. 20, and 1. 39.) has the meaning of rest, and is therefore an intransitive Kal; and on the contrary 'FDWIT (Jud. viii. 11.) has a passive form, and is yet used actively. by has in most phrases the meaning of arising, amounting, and is consequently intransitive ; but when used as transitive, we find it always in the regular formations with accusative, ninuno nyo? (Exod. xxv. 37.) O'n byn77 (Ezech. xxvi. 3.) and in many other places.
" § 182. Niphal is formed by prefixing Nun to the ground-form of the verb, and dropping the first vowel of the same ; e. g. op: 50p},