3477 sq.

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1859. mar. 25.



Benny. Es


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1851, by

CHARLES SCRIBNER, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern

District of New York.

C. W. BENEDICT, Stereotyper and Printer,

201 William st., N. Y.



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The Long Parliament-Its history-Difficulty attending the elec-

tion of new members—Sidney elected from Cardiff Does not

take an active part in its deliberations Events which led to the

trial of the King-Conference with the King at the Isle of Wight

- Treacherous conduct of Charles" Pride's


to bring the King to trial-Sidney nominated one of the commis-

sioners Declines to sit-His reasons-His opinions of the King's

guilt-Reflections on the trial and execution of the King-Con-

duct of the judges-Sidney retires to Penshurst-Returns to Lon-

don after the King's death-Resumes his seat in Parliament, and

sustains the government-Establishment of the Commonwealth

-Installation of the new Council of State—Sidney opposes the

"testoath in Parliament-Difficulty with Cromwell-Question

respecting the dissolution of Parliament-Sidney a member of

the committee to which it was referrea-Labors of the commit.

tee-Subject referred to committee of the whole-Difficulty be-

tween Sidney and his officers-Resigns the command of Dover-

Visits Holland-Quarrels with the Earl of Oxford -Returns to

England and resumes his parliamentary duty-Appointed on va-

rious committees—His colleagues, Vigor of the Commonwealth

government—Sidney's account of it-Ambition of Cromwell-

His hostility to Sidney-Contest between the military and civil

power—The Republicans oppose Cromwell—Plan of the Repub-

through Europe-Arrives at Rome–His residence there and his

description of it-Various letters from Rome-Cardinal Pellavi-

cini—Sidney's pecuniary embarrassments in Italy–His despon-

dency of mind — Letters to his father–He removes to Frascati-

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Arraignment of Sidney-Lord Jeffries and his associates--Sidney

excepts to the indictment-His exceptions overruled-Oppressive

conduct of the Court-Sidney forced to plead to the indictment

and remanded to prison-Appears at the bar of the King's Bench

for trial-Means taken to secure his conviction-Selection and

character of the jury-The judge refuses him a challenge-

Sidney demands counsel and 'is refused–The trial-Oppressive

and tyrannical conduct of the Court- The evidence-Its insuffi-

cient nature-Objections of Sidney–They are overruled by the

Court-Lord Howard of Escrick-His character-His evidence

- Testimony of Foster and Atterbury-The writings of Sidney.

introduced in evidence-Defence of the prisoner-His objections

overruled by the Court—He introduces testimony-Impeachment

of Lord Howard-Contest with the Court-Brutal conduct of

Jeffries—Sidney's argument to the jury-Speech of the Solicitor

General-Charge of the Judge-Verdict of the jury-Surrender

of the Duke of Monmouth after the trial-Hopes of a new trial

--Petition of Sidney to the king-Its failure-Sentence of Sidney

-Scene between the prisoner and th Court-Heroic conduct of

Sidney-Condemned to be executed--Petition of Sidney to the

king to commute his sentence to banishment-Is refused--His

fortitude and resolution in his last hours-Description of his exe-

cution by the sheriff-Is beheaded-Buried at Penshurst-Reflec-

tions upon his trial, condemnation, and execution, .

· 235


The writings of Sidney-Introductory remarks-Extracts-Com-

mon notions of liberty are derived from nature-Men are by na-

ture free-Choice of forms of government originally left to the

people—The social contract considered—Such as enter into society

in some degree diminish their liberty—The natural equality of

man-Virtue only gives a preference of one man to another-

There is no hereditary right of dominion-Men join together and

frame greater or less societies, and give them such forms and law's

as they please–They, who have the right of choosing a king,

have the right of making a king—As to the forms of government

-Those best which comprise the three simple elements-Democ-

racy considered—Sidney in favor of a popular or mixed govern-

ment-Civil governments admit of changes in their superstruc-

ture-Man's natural love of liberty is tempered by reason-

Seditions, tumults, and wars considered—In what cases justified-

When necessary to overthrow a tyranny, or depose a wicked

magistrate–The right of insurrection traced to the social con-

tract-The contracts between the magistrates and the nations

which created them were real, solemn, and obligatory-Same

subject continued – The general revolt of a nation cannot be

called a rebellion-Duties of magistrates as representatives of

the people-No people that is not free can substitute delegates-

The representative system--Legislative power not to be trusted

in the hands of any who are not bound to obey the laws they

make-Reflections on the writings and political opinions of Sid-

ney—The sincerity of his motives-His religious sentiments-

His private character-Conclusion,


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