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object of his go

vernment.

The next important observation that occurs, and to which even they who are most determined to believe that this Prince had always Popery in view, and held on the primary every other consideration as subordinate to that primary object, must nevertheless subscribe, is, that the most confidential advisers, as well as the most furious supporters, of the measures we have related, were not Roman Catholicks. Lauderdale and Queensberry were both Protestants. There is no reason, therefore, to impute any of James's violence afterwards to the suggestions of his. Catholick advisers, since he who had been engaged in the series of measures above related, with Protestant counsellors and coadjutors, had surely nothing to learn from Papists, (whether priests, Jesuits, or others,) in the science of tyranny. Lastly, from this on the state of account we are enabled to form some notion of the state of Scotland, at a time when the parliament of that kingdom was called to set an example for this, and we find it to have been a state of more absolute slavery. than at that time subsisted in any part of Christendom.

Scotland.

The affairs of Scotland being in the state which we Proceedings of have described, it is no wonder that the King's letter liament.

April 28. was received with acclamations of applause, and that the parliament opened, not only with approbation of the government, but even with an enthusiastick zeal, to signalize their loyalty, as well by a perfect acquiescence

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to the King's demands, as by the most fulsome expressions of adulation.“ What Prince in Europe, or in the whole world,” said the Chancellor Perth, “ was ever like the late King, except his present Majesty, who had undergone every trial of prosperity and adversity, and whose unwearied clemency was not among the least con

spicuous of his virtues? To advance his honour and greatness, was the duty of all his subjects, and ought to : be the endeavour of their lives without reserve.” The Parliament voted an address, scarcely less adulatory than the Chancellor's speech,

“ MAY IT PLEASE YOUR SACRED MAJESTY,

“ Your Majesty's gracious and kind remembrance “ of the services done by this, your ancient kingdom, “ to the late King your brother, of ever glorious me

mory, shall rather raise in us ardent desires to exceed “ whatever we have done formerly, than make us con- sider them as deserving the esteem your Majesty is “ pleased to express of them in your Letter to us, dated " the twenty-eighth of March. The death of that our “ excellent Monarch is lamented by us to all the de

grees of grief that are consistent with our great joy “ for the succession of your Sacred Majesty, who has “ not only continued, but' secured the happiness, “ which his wisdom, his justice, and clemency pro“ cured to us : and having the honour to be the first

1685,

" Parliament which meets by your Royal Authority, of CHAPTER “ which we are very sensible, your Majesty may be “ confident, that we will offer such Jaws as may best

secure your Majesty's sacred person, the royal family, and government, and be so exemplary loyal,

as to raise your honour and greatness to the utmost “ of our power, which we shall ever esteem both our “ duty and interest. Nor shall we leave any thing un-“ done for extirpating all fanaticism, but especially 66 those fanatical murtherers and assassins, and for de

tecting and punishing the late conspirators, whose

pernicious and execrable designs did so much tend “ to subvert your Majesty's government, and ruin us “ and all your Majesty's faithful subjects. We can os

assure your Majesty, that the subjects of this your “ Majesty's ancient kingdom are so desirous to exceed “ all their predecessors in extraordinary marks of affec« tion and obedience to your Majesty, that, (God be

praised,) the only way to be popular with us, is to be eminently loyal. Your Majesty's care of us, when

you took us to be your special charge, your wisdom “ in extinguishing the seeds of rebellion and faction “ amongst us, your justice, which was so great, as to 6 be for ever exemplary, but above all, your Majesty's “ free and cheerful securing to us our religion, when

you were the late King's, your Royal Brother's Com• missioner, now again renewed, when you are our So

vereign, are what your subjects here can never forget,

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“ and therefore your Majesty may expect that we will " think your commands sacred as your person, and “ that your inclination will prevent our debates ; nor “ did ever any who represented our Monarchs as their “ Commissioners, (except your royal self,) meet with

greater respect, or more exact observance from a “ Parliament, than the Duke of Queensberry, (whom

your Majesty has so wisely chosen to represent you “ in this, and of whose eminent loyalty, and great abi“ lities in all his former employments, this nation hath

seen so many proofs,) shall find from

“ May it please your Sacred Majesty, your Majesty's most humble, most faithful, and

“ most obedient subjects and servants,

· PERTH, Cancell.”

Its tyrannical acts.

Nor was this spirit of loyalty, (as it was then called,) of abject slavery, and unmanly subservience to the will of a despot, as it has been justly denominated by the more impartial judgment of posterity, confined to words only. Acts were passed to ratify all the late judgments, however illegal or iniquitous, to indemnify the privy council, judges, and all officers of the Crown, civil or military, for all the violences they had committed ; to authorize the privy council to impose the test upon all

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fanks of people under such penalties as that board CHAPTER
might think fit .to impose; to extend the punishment of
death, which had formerly attached upon the preachers
at field conventicles only, to all their auditors, and like-
wise to the preachers at house conventicles ; to subject
to the penalties of treason, all persons who should give,
or take the covenant, or write in defence thereof, or in
any other way own it to be obligatory; and lastly, in a
strain of tyranny, for which there was, it is believed, no
precedent, and which certainly has never been surpass-
ed, to enact, that all such persons as, being cited in
cases of high treason, field or house conventicles, or
church irregularities, should refuse to give testimony,
should be liable to the punishment due by law to the
criminals against whom they refused to be witnesses.
It is true that an act was also passed, for confirming all
former statutes in favour of the Protestant religion as
then established, in their whole strength and tenour, as
if they were particularly set down and expressed in the
said act; but when we recollect the notions which
Queensberry at that time entertained of the King's
views, this proceeding forms no exception to the general
system of servility which characterized both ministers
and parliament. All matters in relation to revenue were
of course settled in the manner most agreeable to his
Majesty's wishes, and the recommendation of his Com-
missioner.

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