(vi) A Gerundial Phrase, as, He did it to insult us

(= for insulting us). By Under (v) may come also the Absolute Participial Phrase, such as, “ The clock having struck, we had to go.”

21. Extensions of the predicate are classified in the above section from the point of view of grammar; but they are also frequently classified from the point of view of distinction in thought.

In this latter way Extensions are classified as extensions of

(i) Time, as, We lived there three years.
(ii) Place, as, Go home! We came from York.
(iii) Manner, as, We scatter seeds with careless hand.
(iv) Magnitude, as, The field measured ten acres.
(v) Cause, as, The clerk was dismissed for idleness.

Under (iv) may also come the idea of weight and price, as, The parcel weighed four pounds. It cost sixpence.


22. The following cautions are of importance : (i) The Noun in an absolute clause cannot be the Subject of a simple sentence.

We can say,

“ The train having started, we returned to the hotel.”

Here we is the subject. The phrase "the train having started” is an adverbial phrase modifying returned, and giving the reason for the returning. (ii) The direct object may be compound. Thus we can

say, “I saw the ship sink ;” and “the ship sink” is

a compound direct object. If it is necessary to analyse the phrase " the ship sink,” then we must say that sink is the direct object of saw; and that ship is the subject of the infinitive verb sink. (In English, as well as in Latin, the subject of an infinitive is in the objective or accusative case.) (iii) A subject may be compound, and may contain an object, as,

“ To save money is always useful.” Here

the subject is to save money, and contains the

object money—the object of the verb to save. An object may also contain another object, which is not the object of the sentence. Thus we can say, "I like to save money,” when the direct object of like is to save, and money is a part only of that direct object. (iv) The Nominative of address cannot be the subject

of a sentence. Thus, in the sentence, “John, go into the garden,” the subject of go is not John, but you understood.


23. It is of the greatest importance to get the eye to help the mind, and to present to the sight if possible-either on paper or on the black-board—the sentence we have to consider. This is called mapping-out.

Let us take two simple sentences :

(i) “ From the mountain-path came a joyous sound of some person whistling." (ii) “In the Acadian land, on the shores of the Basin of Minas,

Distant, secluded, still, the little village of Grand-Pré

Lay in the fruitful valley." 24. These may be mapped out, before analysing them, in the following way

(i) A


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25. Such a mapping-out enables us easily to see, with the bodily as well as with the mind's eye, what is the main purpose of all analysis—to find out which words go with which, and what is the real build of the sentence. Hence, unless we see at a glance the build of the sentence we are going to analyse, we ought, before doing so, to set to work and map it out.


26. A Compound Sentence is one which consists of two or more Simple Sentences packed, for convenience' sake, into


Thus, in the “ Lay of the Last Minstrel,” Sir W. Scott writes :-

The way was long, the wind was cold,
The minstrel was infirm and old.”

He might have put a full stop at long and at cold, for the sense ends in these places, and, grammatically, the two lines form three separate and distinct sentences. But because in thought the three are connected, the poet made one compound sentence out of the three simple sentences.

27. A Compound Sentence may be contracted.

(i) Thus, the famous sentence, “ Cæsar came, saw, and conquered” is =three sentences—“ Cæsar came,” Cæsar saw,” etc., and is therefore contracted in the subject.

(ii) In the sentence, “Either a knave or a fool has done this,” the sentence is contracted in the predicate for the purpose of avoiding the repetition of the verb has done.

28. Caution! The relative pronouns who and which sometimes combine two co-ordinate sentences into one compound sentence. Thus

(i) We met a man at the gate, who told us the way. (ii) He was not at home, which was a great pity.

Here who is=and he; which is=and this; and the two sentences in both instances are of equal rank. Hence both (i) and (ii) are compound sentences.


29. A Complex Sentence is a statement which contains one Principal Sentence, and one or more sentences dependent upon it, which are called Subordinate Sentences. There are three kinds—and there can only be three kinds of subordinate sentences-Adjectival, Noun, and Adverbial.

A subordinate sentence is sometimes called a clause.

30. A Subordinate Sentence that goes with a Noun fulfils the function of an Adjective, is equal to an Adjective, and is therefore called an Adjectival Sentence.

Darkness, which might be felt, fell upon the city.” Here the subsentence, “which - might - be - felt,” goes with the noun darkness, belongs to it, and cannot be separated from it; and this sentence is therefore an adjectival sentence.

31. A Subordinate Sentence that goes with a Verb fulfils the function of an Adverb, is equal to an Adverb, and is therefore called an Adverbial Sentence.

“I will go whenever you are ready.” Here the sub- sentence, “ whenever you are ready,” is attached to the verb go, belongs to it, and cannot be separated from it; and hence this sentence is an adverbial sentence.

32. A Subordinate Sentence that forms the subject of a Predicate, or the Object, or that is in apposition with a noun, fulfils the function of a Noun, and is therefore called a Noun Sentence.

“He told me that his cousin had gone to sea." Here the sub-sentence, “his cousin had gone to sea," is the object of the transitive verb told. It fulfils the function of a noun, and is therefore a noun sentence. 33. An Adjectival Sentence may be attached to

(i) The Subject of the Principal Sentence; or to (ii) The Object of the Principal Sentence; or to (iii) Any Noun whatsoever. (i) The book that-I-bought is on the table: to the subject. (ii) I laid the book I-bought on the table ; to the object. (iii) The child fell into the stream that-runs-past-the-mill: to the noun stream-a noun in an adverbial phrase.

34. An Adverbial Sentence may be attached to-

(i) A Verb; (ii) An Adjective; or to (iii) An Adverb. (i) To a Verb. It does not matter in what position the verb is. It may be (a) the Predicate, as in the sentence, “I walk when I can.” It may be (6) an Infinitive forming a subject, as, “To get up when one is tired is not pleasant.” It may be (c) a participle as in the sentence, “Having dined before he came, I started at once.”

(ii) To an Adjective. “His grief was such that all pitied him.” Here the sub-sentence “ that all pitied him " modifies the adjective such.

(iii) To an Adverb. “He was so weak that he could not stand.Here the sub-sentence " that he could not stand modifies the adverb so, which itself modifies the adjective weak.

35. A Noun Sentence may

(i) The Subject of the Principal Sentence; or
(ii) The Object of the main verb; or
(iii) The Nominative after is; or
(iv) In Apposition with another Noun.

(i) That-he-is-better cannot be denied :" the subject. Here the true nominative is that. “ That cannot be denied.” What? “That= he is better.” (From usage, that in such sentences acquires the function and force of a conjunction.)

(ii) “I heard that-he-was-better :” the object. (iii) “My motive in going was that-I-might-be-of-use :” nominative after was.

(iv) “The fact that-he-voted-against-his-party is well known :" in apposition with fact.

36. Any number of Subordinate Sentences may be attached to the Principal Sentence. The only limit is that dictated by a regard to clearness, to the balance of clauses, or to good taste.

The best example of a very long sentence, which consists entirely of one principal sentence and a very large number of adjective sentences, is “ The House that Jack built.” “This is the house that-Jack-built.” “This is the malt that-lay-in-the-house-that-Jack-built,” and so on.

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