When a group

1. Words are gregarious, and go in groups. of words makes complete sense, it is called a sentence. A sentence is not a chance collection of words ; it is a true organism, with a heart and limbs. When we take the limbs apart from the central core or heart of the sentence, and try to show their relation to that core, and to each other, we are said to analyse the sentence. The process of thus taking a sentence to pieces, and naming and accounting for each piece, is called analysis.

(i) Analysis is a Greek word which means breaking up or taking apart : its opposite is Synthesis, which means making up or putting together.

(ii) When we examine a sentence, and look at its parts, we are said to analyse the sentence, or to perform an act of analysis. But when we make sentences themselves, we perform an act of composition or of synthesis.

2. A sentence is a statement made about something, as, The horse gallops.

(i) The something (horse) is called the Subject.
(ii) The statement (gallops) is called the Predicate.

3. Every sentence consists, and must consist, of at least two parts. These two parts are the thing we speak about and what we say about that thing.

(i) The Subject is what we speak about.
(ii) The Predicate is what we say about the subject.

(i) There is a proverb of Solomon which All things are double one against another." So there are the two necessarily complementary ideas of even and odd;


of right and left; of north and south; and many more. In language, the two ideas of Subject and Predicate are necessarily coexistent; neither can exist without the other; we cannot even think the one without the other. They are the two poles of thought.

(ii) Sometimes the Subject is not expressed in imperative sentences, as in "Go!"="Go you!”

(iii) The Predicate can never be suppressed; it must always be expressed : otherwise nothing at all would be said.

4. There are three kinds of sentences : Simple, Compound, and Complex.

(i) A simple sentence contains only one subject and one predicate.

(ii) A compound sentence contains two or more simple sentences of equal rank.

(iii) A complex sentence contains a chief sentence, and one or more sentences that are of subordinate rank to the chief sentence.


5. A Simple Sentence is a sentence which consists of one subject and one predicate.

(i) A Simple Sentence contains, and can contain, only one finite verb. If we say, “Baby likes to dance," there are two verbs in this simple sentence. But to dance is not a finite verb; it is an infinitive ; it is a pure noun, and cannot therefore be a predicate.

(ii) If we say, “ John and James ran off,” the sentence is =" John ran off" +"James ran off.” It is therefore a compound sentence consisting of two simple sentences, with the predicate of one of them suppressed. Hence it is called a contracted compound sentence-contracted in the predicate.

(iii) If we say, John jumped up and ran off,” the sentence is "John jumped up” +" John ran off.” It is therefore a compound sentence consisting of two simple sentences, but, for convenience' sake, contracted in the subject.

6. The Subject of a sentence is what we speak about. What we speak about we must name.

If we name a thing, we must use a name or noun.
Therefore the subject must always be either-

(i) A noun; or
(ii) Some word or words equivalent to a noun.

7. There are seven kinds of Subjects

(i) A Noun, as, England is our home. (ii) A Pronoun, as, It is our fatherland. (iii) A Verbal Noun, as, Walking is healthy. (iv) A Gerund, as, Catching fish is a pleasant pastime. (v) An Infinitive, as, To swim is quite easy. (vi) An Adjective, with a noun understood, as, The

prosperous are sometimes cold-hearted. (vii) A Quotation, as, “ Ay, ay, sir!” burst from a

thousand throats.

(a) The verbal noun, as we have seen, originally ended in ung.
(6) Catching is a gerund, because it is both a noun (nominative to

is) and a verb, governing fish in the objective.

8. The Predicate in a sentence is what we say about the subject. If we say anything, we must use a saying or telling word. But a telling word is a verb. Therefore the Predicate must always be a verb, or

some word or words equivalent to a verb.

9. There are five kinds of Predicates

(i) A Verb, as, God is. The stream runs.
(ii) “To be ” + a noun, as, He is a carpenter.
(iii) “To be + an adjective, as, They are idle.
“ To be

+ an adverb, as, The books are there. (v) “ To be +- a phrase, as, She is in good health. 10. When the predicate consists of an active-transitive verb, it requires an object after it to make complete sense. This object is called either the object or the completion. As we must name the object, it is plain that it must always, like the subject, be a noun, or some word or words equivalent to a noun.

11. As there are seven kinds of Subjects, so there are seven kinds of Objects or Completions. These are :

(i) A Noun, as, All of us love England.
(ii) A Pronoun, as, We saw him in the garden.
(iii) A Verbal Noun, as, We like walking.
(iv) A Gerund, as, The angler prefers taking large fish.

(v) An Infinitive, as, We hate to be idle.
(vi) An Adjective with a noun understood, as, Good

men love the good.
(vii) A Quotation, as, We heard his last " Good-

bye, Tom !” 12. Verbs of giving, promising, offering, handing, and many such, take also an indirect object, which is sometimes called the dative object. 13. There are two kinds of Indirect Objects :

(i) A Noun, We gave the man a shilling. (ii) A Pronoun, We offered him sixpence. In The indirect or dative object may be construed with to. Thus we can say, “We offered it to him.” But, in such instances, to him is still the indirect object and it the direct object.

14. The Subject or the Object is always a Noun.

A Noun may have going with it any number of adjectives or adjectival phrases. An adjective or adjectival phrase that goes with a subject or with an object is called, in Analysis, an Enlargement.

It is so called because it enlarges our knowledge of the subject. Thus, if we say, The man is tired,” we have no knowledge of what kind of man is spoken of ; but, if we say, The

poor old man is tired,” our notion of the man is enlarged by the addition of the facts that he is both poor and old.


15. There are seven kinds of Enlargements :


(i) An Adjective-one, two, or

That big old red book is sold. (ii) A Noun (or nouns) in apposition, William the Con

queror defeated Harold.

(iii) A Noun or pronoun) in the Possessive Case,

His hat flew off.

(iv) A Prepositional Phrase, The walk in the fields

was pleasant. (v) An Adjectival Phrase, The boy, ignorant of his

duty, was soon dismissed. (vi) A Participle (a), or Participial Phrase (1)

Sobbing and weeping, she was led from the room (a). The merchant, having failed, gave up

business (6). (vii) A Gerundial Infinitive-Anxiety to succeed ( = of

succeeding) wore him out. Bread to eat (= for eating) could not be had anywhere.

16. It is plain that all these seven kinds of Enlargements may go with the Object as well as with the Subject.

17. An Enlargement, being a word or phrase that goes with a noun, must always be an adjective or equivalent to an adjective.

18. The Predicate is always a verb.
The word that goes with a verb is called an adverb.

Therefore the word or words that go with the predicate are either adverbs or words equivalent to adverbs.

19. The adverbs or adverbial phrases that go with the predicate are called, in Analysis, the Extensions of the Predicate.

20. There are six kinds of Extensions :

(i) An Adverb, as, The time went slowly.
(ii) An Adverbial Phrase, as, Mr Smith spoke very

well indeed.
(iii) A Prepositional Phrase, as, Mr Smith spoke with

great effect. (iv) A Noun Phrase, as, We walked side by side. (v) A Participial Phrase, as, The mighty rocks came

bounding down.

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