(i) “ If thou read this, 0 Cæsar, thou mayst live.” (Doubt.)
(ii) “If he come, I will speak to him.” (Possibility.)
(iii) “Yet if one heart throb higher at its sway,

The wizard note has not been touched in vain.” (Supposition.) (iv)

“ Get on your night-gown; lest occasion call us

And show to be watchers.” (Co quence.) (v) “I would my daughter were dead at my foot, and the jewels in her ear !” (Wish.) AT In all of the above sentences, the clauses with subjunctives do not state facts,

but feelings or notions of what may or might be.

RULE XXXVII.-The Subjunctive Mood, being a subjoineil mood, is always dependent on some other clause antecedent in thought, and generally also in expression. The antecedent clause, which contains the condition, is called the conditional clause; and the clause which contains the consequence of the supposition is called the consequent clause. (i) If it were so, it was a grievous fault.

Consequence. (ii) If it were done when 'tis done,



Then 'twere well it were done quickly.



1. Sometimes the conditional clause is suppressed. Thus we can say, “I would not endure such language ” [if it were addressed to me conditional clause).

2. The conjunction is often omitted. Thus, in Shakespeare's play of “ Julius Cæsar," we find

" Were I Brutus, And Brutus Antony, there were an Antony Would ruffle up your spirits.”

RULE XXXVIII.—The Simple Infinitive-without the sign to—is used with auxiliary verbs, such as may, do, shall, will, etc. ; and with such verbs as let, bid, can, must, see, hear, make, feel, observe, have, know, etc.


(i) Let darkness keep her raven gloss.
(ii) Bid the porter come.
(iii) I saw him run after a gilded butterfly.
(iv) We heard him cry.

(v) They made him go, etc., etc.
It was the Danes who introduced a preposition before the infinitive.
Their sign was at, which was largely used with the infinitive in the
Northern dialect.


RULE XXXIX.—The Gerund is both a noun and a verb. o As a noun, it is governed by a verb or preposition ; as verb, it governs other nouns or pronouns.

There are two gerunds—(i) one with to; and (ii) one that ends in ing.

(i) The first is to be carefully distinguished from the ordinary infinitive. Now the ordinary infinitive never expresses a purpose; the gerund with to almost always does. Thus we find

“And fools who came to scoff remained to pray.” This gerund is often called the gerundial infinitive.

(ii) The second is to be distinguished from the present participle in ing, and very carefully from the abstract noun of the same form. The present participle in ing, as loving, hating, walking, etc., is always an adjective, agreeing with a noun or pronoun. The gerund in ing is always a noun, and governs an object. “He was very fond of playing cricket.” Here playing is a noun in relation to of; and a verb governing cricket in the objective. In the words walking-stick, frying-pan, etc., walking and frying are nouns, and therefore gerunds. If they were adjectives and participles, the compounds would mean the stick that walks, the pan that fries.

(iii) The gerund in ing must also be distinguished from the verbal noun in ing, which is a descendant of the verbal noun in ung. “He went a hunting” (where a=the old an or on); “Forty and six years was this temple in building ;" "He was very impatient during the reading of the will.” In these sentences hunting, building, and reading are all verbal nouns, derived from the old verbal noun in ung, and are called abstract nouns. But if we say, “He is fond of hunting deer;" “He is engaged in building a hotel;” “He likes reading poetry,"—then the three words are gerunds, for they act as verbs, and govern the three objectives, deer, hotel, and poetry.


RULE XL.—The Gerundial Infinitive is frequently construed with nouns and adjectives,

Thus we say :

"A house

to sell or let ;” “Wood to burn;” “Deadly to hear, and deadly to tell; " " Good to eat.


RULE XLI.—The Adverb ought to be as near as possible to the word it modifies. Thus we ought to say, “He gave me only three shillings,” and not “He only gave me three shillings,” because only modifies three, and not gave.

This rule applies also to compound adverbs, such as at least, in like manner, at random, in part, etc.

RULE XLII.-Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs; but they can also modify prepositions. Thus we have the combinations out from, up to, down to, etc.

In the sentence, “He walked up to me,” the adverb up does not modify walked, but the prepositional phrase to me.


RULE XLIII. - All prepositions in the English language govern nouns and pronouns in the objective case.

The prepositions save and except are really verbs in the imperative mood.

RULE XLIV.-Prepositions generally stand before the words they govern; but they may, with good effect, come after them. Thus we find in Shakespeare

“ Ten thousand men that fishes gnawed upon.”

Why, then, thou knowest what colour jet is of.” And, in Hooker, with very forcible effect,

Shall there be a God to swear by, and none to pray to ?”

RULE XLV.-Certain verbs, nouns, and adjectives require special prepositions. Thus we cannot say, " This is different to that,” because it is bad English to say “This differs to that.” The proper preposition in both instances is from.

The following is a list of some of these

Special prepositions:Absolve from.

Derogatory to. Abhorrence for.

Differ from (a statement or opinion). Accord with.

Differ with (a person). Acquit of.

Different from. Affinity between.

Disappointed of (what we cannot Adapted to intentionally).

get). Adapted for (by nature).

Disappointed in (what we have Agree with (a person).

got). Agree to (a proposal).

Dissent from. Bestow upon.

Exception from (a rule). Change for (a thing).

Exception to (a statement). Change with (a person).

Glad of (a possession). Confer on (=give to).

Glad at (a piece of news). Confer with (= talk with).

Involve in. Confide in (=trust in).

Martyr for (a cause). Confide to (=intrust to).

Martyr to (a disease). Conform to.

Need of or for. In conformity with.

Part from (a person). Comply with.

Part with (a thing). Convenient to a person).

Profit by. Convenient for (a purpose).

Reconcile to (a person). Conversant with.

Reconcile with (a statement). Correspond with (a person).

Taste of (food). Correspond to (a thing).

A taste for (art). Dependent on (but independent of). Thirst for or after (knowledge).


RULE XLVI.—The Conjunction does not interfere with the action of a transitive verb or preposition, nor with the mood or tense of a verb.

(i) This rule is usually stated thus : “ Conjunctions generally connect the same cases of nouns and pronouns, and the same moods and tenses of verbs, as 'We saw him and her,''Let either him or me go !'” But it is plain that saw governs her as well as him ; and that or cannot interfere with the government of let. Such a rule is therefore totally artificial.

(ii) It is plain that the conjunction and must make two singulars= one plural, as He and I are of the same age.”


RULE XLVII.-Certain adjectives and conjunctions take

after them certain special conjunctions. Thus, such (adj.) requires as, both (adj.), and; so and as require as; though, yet; whether, or; either, or; neither, nor; nor, nor; or,

The following are a few examples :-
(i) “Would I describe a preacher such as Paul !”
(ii) “Though deep, yet clear ; though gentle, yet not dull.”


RULE XLVIII.-The subordinating conjunction that may be omitted. Thus we can say,

Are you sure he is here?” Shakespeare has, “Yet Brutus says he was ambitious !”

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