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in-, te Dini 2 Ando-Saxon), the
res: ami bad eren as late as
TIJE + PILKT, bering been de
ne huning teon defeated is an Er wach is the noun to fled. But, Sam de detented, his army broke
a tan th name so my verb-is in the mimik la s À 2 nou is the nominative Citate in the nominative absolute.
That I have ta'en away this old man's daughter
It is most true."
12 It must be observed that the demonstrative that is
force, and exercises the function, of a conjunction :
4. The nominative to a verb in the Imdemt. omitted. Thus Come along! = Come thuil :
2.—THE POSSESSIVE VI
RULE VI.—When one Youn stande I &
(i) The Possessive Case originally none
(ii) The objective case with
the clown. beasts.
there to such a verb,
wa mnade passive.
(ii) Whales were spoken-of. this is an enormous convenience
the case of the Indirect Object.
: He handed her a chair. She gave it me.
also the case of the Direct Object, with
3.—THE OBJECTIVE CASE.
1. The Objective Case is that case of a noun or pronoun that is “governed by” a transitive verb or by a preposition.
A It is only the pronoun that has a special form for this case. The English noun formerly had it, but lost it between the years 1066 and 1300.
2. The Objective Case is the case of the Direct Object; the Dative Case is the case of the Indirect Object—and something more.
(i) The Direct Object answers to the question Whom? or What ? (ii) The Indirect Object answers to the question To whom ? To what ? or For whom? For what?
3. The object of an active-transitive verb must always be a Noun or the Equivalent of a Noun.
RULE VIII.—The Direct Object of an Active-Transitive Verb is put in the Objective Case.
Thus we read : (i) We met the man (Noun). (ii) We met him (Pronoun). (iii) We saw the fighting (Verbal Noun). (iv) I like to work (Infinitive). (v) I heard that he had left (Noun sentence).
RULE IX.–Verbs of teaching, asking, making, appointing, etc., take two objects.
Thus we say: (i) He teaches me grammar. (ii) He asked me a question. (iii) They made him manager. (iv) The Queen appointed him Treasurer.
AT In the last two instances the objects are sometimes called factitive objects.
RULE X.—Some Intransitive Verbs take an objective case after them, if the objective has a similar or cognate meaning to that of the verb itself.
Thus we find : (i) To die the death. (ii) To sleep a sleep. (iii) To go one's way. To wend one's way. (iv) To run a race. (v) Dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before.
Am Such objects are called cognate objects.
RULE XI.—The limitations of a Verb by words or phrases expressing space, time, measure, etc., are said to be in the
objective case; as (i) he walked three miles ; (ii) he travelled all night; (iii) the stone weighed three pounds.
AT 1. Because these words limit or modify the verbs to which they are attached, they are sometimes called Adverbial Objects.
2. The following phrases are adverbial objects of the same kind : (i) They bound him hand and foot. (ii) They fell upon him tooth and nail. (iii) They turned out the Turks, bag and baggage. Such phrases are rightly called adverbial, beeause they modify bound, fell, and turned ; and show how he was bound, how they fell upon him, etc.
REMARKS ON EXCEPTIONS.
1. The same verb may be either Intransitive or Transitive, according to its use. Thus
Intransitive. (i) The soldier ran away.
Transitive. (i) The soldier ran his spear into
the Arab. (ii) The master works his men too
hard. (iii) The groom walked the horse
(ii) The man works very hard.
(iii) We walked up the hill.
up the hill.
2. An Intransitive verb performs the function of a Transitive verb when a preposition is added to it. ThusIntransitive.
Transitive. (i) The children laughed. (i) The children laughed at the clown. (ii) The man spoke.
(ii) The man spoke of wild beasts.
3. The preposition may continue to adhere to such a verb, so that it remains even when the verb has been made passive.
Thus we can say : (i) He was laughed-at. (ii) Whales were spoken-of. (iii) Prosecution was hinted-at. And this is an enormous convenience in the use of the English language.
4.—THE DATIVE CASE.
1. The Dative is the case of the Indirect Object.
Thus we say: He handed her a chair. She gave it me. 2. The Dative is also the case of the Direct Object, with
such verbs as be, worth, seem, please, think ( seem); and with the adjectives like and near.
Thus we have the phrases, meseems ; if you please (=if it please you); methought (=it seemed to me); woe is me! and, she is like him; he was near us.
Woe worth the chase! woe worth the day
—“Lady of the Lake.”
—“Lay of the Last Minstrel.”
3. The Dative is sometimes the case of possession or of benefit.
As in, Woe is me! Well is thee!
Convey me Salisbury into his tent.”
RULE XII.–Verbs of giving, promising, telling, showing, etc., take two objects; and the indirect object is put in the dative case.
Thus we say: He gave her a fan. She promised me a book. Tell us a story. Show me the picture-book.
RULE XIII.-—When such verbs are turned into the passive voice, either the Direct or the Indirect Object may be turned into the subject of the Passive Verb.
Thus we can say either
Direct Object used as Subject. Indirect Object used as Subject. (i) A fan was given her.
(i) She was given a fan. (ii) A book was promised me. (ii) I was promised a book. (iii) A story was told us.
(iii) We were told a story." (iv) The picture-book was shown I was shown the picture-book.1
1 This has sometimes been called the Retained Object. The words fan, etc., are in the objective case, not because they are governed by the passive verbs was given, etc., but because they still retain, in a latent form, the influence or government exercised upon them by the active verbs, give, promise, etc.