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4. Ma or m (Gr. ua), passive suffix, as in

Diorama. Dogma. Drama (something done). Schism.
Baptism. Barbarism. Despotism.

Egotism. (i) In diadem and system the a has dropped off; in scheme and theme it has been changed into an e.

(ii) Schism comes from schizo, I cut. The ending in ismos is most frequent.

(iii) This ending unites freely with Latin words to form hybrids, as in deism, mannerism, purism, provincialism, vulgarism, etc.

5. St (Gr. otns)=agent, as in

Baptist. Botanist. Iconoclast (image-breaker). (i) This suffix has become a very useful one, and is largely employed. It forms numerous hybrids with words of Latin origin, as abolitionist, excursionist, educationist, journalist, protectionist, jurist, socialist, specialist, royalist.

6. T or te (Gr. ans)=agent, as in-
Comet.
Planet.

Poet.

Apostate. (i) Comet means a long-haired stur; planet, a wanderer; poet, a maker (in Northern English poets called theinselves “ Makkers "); an apostate, a person who has fallen away.

(ii) This ending is also found in the form of ot and it, as in idiot, patriot, hermit.

7. Ter or tre (Gr. tpor), denotes an instrument or place, as in
Metre.
Centre.

Theatre.

8. Isk (Gr. lokos), a diminutive, as in

Asterisk (a little star). Obelisk (a small spit).

9. Ize or ise (Gr. 15w) makes factitive verbs, as in

Baptise. Criticise. Judaize. Anglicize. (i) This ending combines with Latin words to form the hybrids minimise, realise, etc.

127

WORD - BRANCHING.

burn

brindle

brown

brand

brunt

brandy

brimstone

byrn-an

WHEN our language was young and uninfluenced by other languages, it had the power of growing words. These words, like plants, grew from a root; and all the words that grew from the same root had a family likeness. Thus byrn-an, the old word for to burn, gave us brimstone, brown (which is the burnt colour), brunt, brand, brandy, and brindle.

These we might represent to ourselves, on the blackboard, as growing in this way.

But, unfortunately, we soon lost this power. From the time when the Normans came into this country in 1066, the language became less and less capable of growing its own words. Instead of producing a new word, we fell into the habit of simply taking an old and ready-made word from French, or from Latin, or from Greek, and giving it a place in the language. Instead of the Old English word fairhood, we imported the French word beauty; instead of forewit, we adopted the Latin word caution; instead of licherest, we took the Greek word cemetery. And so it came about that in course of time we lost the power of growing our own new words. The Greek word asterisk has prevented our making the word starkin; the Greek name astronomy has kept out star-craft; the Latin word omnibus has stopped our even thinking of folkwain; and the name vocabulary is much more familiar to our ears than wordhoard, Indeed, so strange have some of our

own native

English words become to us, that sentences composed entirely of English words are hardly intelligible; and, to make them quickly intelligible, we have to translate some of the English words into Greek or into Latin, It is well, however, for us to become acquainted with those pure English words which grew upon our own native roots, and which owe nothing whatever to other languages. For they are the purest, the simplest, the most homely and the most genuine part of our language; and from them we can get a much better idea of what our language once was than we can from its present very mixed condition. The following are the most important

ENGLISH ROOTS AND BRANCHES (OR DERIVATIONS).

Ac, an oak-acorn, Acton, Uckfield.

berth ; brood, brother, breed, bird ; 3 Bac-an, to bake-baker, baxter 1 (a woman burden; barrow. baker), batch.

Bet-an, to make good—better, best ; boot Ban-a, a slayer-bane, baneful; ratsbane, (in “to boot"="to the good "), boot. henbane.

less. Bead-an, to pray — bedesman; beadle; Bind-an, to bind-band, bond, bondage ;

bead (“to bid one's beads was to say bundle ; woodbine; bindweed. one's prayers; and these were marked Bít-an, to bite-bit; beetle; bait; bitter. off by small round balls of wood or glass Bla'w-an, to puff-bladder, blain (chil. --now called beads -- strung upon a blain), blast, blaze (to proclaim), blazon string); forbid.

(a proclamation), blare (of a trumpet); Beat-an, to strike — beat, bat (a short blister; blot, bloat.

cudgel): battle; beetle (a wooden bat Blow-an, to blossom-blow (said of flowfor beating clothes with); batter (a kind ers); bloom, blossom ; blood, blade; of pudding).

blowsy. Beorg-an, to shelter-burrow, bury (noun Brec-an, to break-break, breakers; brake,

in Canterbury – and verb); burgh, bracken ; breach, brick ; break - fast; burgher; burglar (a house-robber); har. brook (=the water which breaks up bour, Cold Harbour ; 2 harbinger (a per: through the ground); brittle (=brickle son sent on in front to procure lodg. or breakable); bray (where the hard ings); borrow (to raise money on secur guttural has been absorbed). ity).

Breow-an, to brew-brew, brewer; broth, Bér-an, to bear-bear, bier, bairn; birth, brose; bread (perhaps).

1 Compare brewster, a woman brewer, spinster, webster, and others. Brewster, Laxter, and Webster are now only used as proper names.

2 Cold Harbour was the name given to an inn which provided merely shelter without provisions. There are seventy places of this name in England. Many of them stand on the great Roman roads; and they were chiefly the ruins of Roman villas used by travellers who carried their own bedding and provisions. See Isaac Taylor's Words and Places,' p. 256. 3 Brid or bird was originally the

any animal.

young of

Bug-an, to bend-bow, elbow ;1 bough; | Drag-an, to draw - drag, draw, dray

bight; buxom (O.E. bocsum, Alexible or (three forms of the same word); draft obedient). The hard g in bigan appears (draught); drain ; dredge; draggle ; as a w in bow, as a gh in bough, as a y drawl.

in buy, as a k in buxom=buk-som. Drif-an, to push-drive; drove; drift, Byrn-an, to burn-burn, brown; brunt, adrift.

brimstone ; brand, brandy; brindled. Drige, dry-dry (verb and adj.); drought; Catt, a cat-catkin; kitten, kitling; cater. drugs (originally dried plants).

pillar (the hairy cat, from Lat. pilosus, Drinc-an, to soak-drink; drench (to hairy), caterwaul.

make to drink). Compare sit, set; fall, Ceapi-an, to buy-cheap, cheapen; chop fell, etc.

(to exchange); a chopping sea; chap, Drip-an, to drip — drip, drop, droop; chapman; chaffer ; Eastcheap, Cheap dribble, driblet. side, Chepstow (=the market stow or Dug-an, to be good for-do (in “How place), Chippenham. 2

do you do?” and “That will do "); Cenn-an, to produce-kin, kind, kindred ; doughty. kindly; kindle.

Eac, also-eke (verb and adv.); ekename Ceow-an, to chew--chew; cheek; jaw (which became a nickname ; the n hav

(=chaw); jowl; chaw-bacon ; cud (=the ing dropped from the article and clung chewed). Compare seethe and suds.

to the noun). Cleov-an, to split-cleave, cleaver; cleft ; Eáge, eye-Egbert (=bright-eyed); daisy clover (split grass).

(=day's eye); window (= wind-eye). Clifi-an, to stick to — cleave; clip (for Eri-an, to plough-ear (the old word for

keeping papers together); claw (by plough); earth (=the ploughed). which a bird cleaves to a tree); club (a Far-an, to go or travel-far, fare; welfare, set of men who cleave together).

fieldfare, thoroughfare ; ferry : ford. Cnáw-an, to know-ken, know (=ken-ow Feng-an, to catch-fang, finger, new-ow being a dim.); knowledge.

fangled (catching eagerly after new Cnotta, a knot-knot, knit, net (the k things).

having been dropped for the eye, as well Feówer, four-farthing ; firkin; fourteen ; as for the ear).

forty. Cunn-an, to know or to be able-can, con; Fleóg-an, to flee-fly, flight; flea; fledged. cunning; uncouth.

Fleót-an, to float-fleet (noun, verb, and Cweth-an, to say-quoth; bequeath. adj.); float; ice-floe ; afloat; flotsam 3 Cwic, alive-quick, quicken; quickset; (things found floating on the water after

quicklime ; quicksilver ; to cut to the a wreck). quick.

Fod-a, food-feed; food, fodder, foster ; Dáel-an, to divide--deal (verb and noun), fath-er ; forage (=fodderage), forager ;

dole, deal (said of wood); dale, dell (the foray (an excursion to get food).

original sense being cleft, or separated). Freón, to love-freond=friend (the pres. Dem-an, to judge-deem, doom ; demp part.) a lover; Fri-day (the day of Friya,

ster (the name for a judge in the Isle of the goddess of love); friendship, etc. Man); doomsday; kingdom.

Gal-an, to sing-gale, yell; nightingale. 4 Deór, dear-dearth ; darling; endear. Gang-an, to go -- gang, gangway; ago. Dóan, to act-do; don, doff, dup (=do (The words gate and gait do not come

up or op-en); dout (=do out or put out); from this verb, but from get.) deed. Compare mow, mead; sow, seed. | Gnag-an, to bite gnaw (the g has be.

1 Elbow=ell-bow. The ell was the forepart of the arm.

2 The same root is found in the Scotch Kippen and the Danish Copenhagen=Mer. chants' Haven.

3 “Flotsam and jetsam" mean the floating things and the things thrown over. board from a ship. Jetsam comes from Old Fr. jetter, to throw. (Hence also “jet of water"; jetty, etc. Jetsam is a hybrid-sum being a Scandinavian suffix.

4 The n in nightingale is no part of the word. It is intrusive and non-organic; as it also is in passenger, messenger, porringer, etc.

come a w); guat; nag (to tease), con found in the Naze, Sheerness, etc.); nected with nail.

nostril nose-thirl (from thirlian, to Graf-an, to dig or cut-grave, groove, bore a hole), nozzle ; nosegay.

grove (the original sense was a lane cut Penn-an. to shut up or enclose-pen, pin through trees); graft, engraft; engrave, (two forins of the same word); pound, engraver; carve (which is another form pond (two forms of the same word); of the verb grave).

impound. Grip-an, to seize - grip, gripe ; grasp; Pic, a point-pike, peak (two forms of the grab; grope.

same word); pickets (stakes driven into Gyrd-an, to surround-gird, girdle; gar the ground to tether horses to); pike, den, yard, vineyard, hopyard.

pickerel (the fish); peck, pecker. Hael-an, to heal - hale; holy, hallow, Reed-an, to read or guess-rede (advice);

All - hallows ; health; hail; whole, 1 riddle ; Ethelred (=noble in counsel); wholesome ; wassail (=Waes hål ! = Be Unready (=Unrede, without counsel); whole !)

Mildred (=mild in counsel). Hebb-an, to raise-heave, heave-offering; Reaf, clothing, spoil; reáfi-an, to rob-rob,

heavy (=that requires much heaving); robber; reave, bereave; reever; robe. heaven.

Ripe, ripe-reap (to gather what is ripe). Hlaf, bread-loaf; lord (hlaford loaf- Scád-an, to divide shed (to part the

ward); lady (= hlaf-dige, from dig-an, to hair); watershed. knead) ; Lammas (=Loaf-mass, Aug. 1; Sceap-an, to form or fashion-shape; ship a loaf was offered on this day as the (the suffix in friendship, etc.); scape offering of the first-fruits).

(the suffix in landscape, etc.) Leác, à leek-house-leek; garlic; hem- Sceót-an, to throw — shoot, shot, shut lock.

(=to shoot the bolt of the door); sheet Licg-an, to lie - lie; lay, layer; lair; (that which is thrown over a bed); shutoutlay.

ter, shuttle; scud. Loda, a guide-lead (the verb); lode-star, Scér-an, to cut-shear, share, sheer, shire, lode-stone (also written loadstone).

shore (all forms of the same word); scar, Mag-an, to be able-may, main (in "might scare; score (the twentieth notch in and main "), might, mighty.

the tally, and made larger than the Mang, a mixture — a-mong ; mongrel ; others); scarify, sharp; short, shirt, mingle; cheesemonger.

skirt (three forms of the same word); Maw-an, to cut-mow; math, aftermath; shred, potsherd (the same word, with

mead, meadow (the places where grass is the r transposed); sheriff (=scir-geréfa, mowed).

reeve of the shire); scrip, scrap, scrape. Món-a, the moon - month; moonshine. The soft form sh belongs to the southern

(This word comes from a very old root, English dialects: the hard forms, sc and ma, to measure. Our Saxon forefathers sk, to the northern. measured by moons and by nights, as Scuf-an, to push-shove, shovel, shume ;

we see in the words fortnight, se'nnight.) scuffle ; sheaf; scoop. Naeddrë, a snake - adder. The n has Sett-an, to set, or make sit-set, seat;

dropped off from the word, and has ad. settle, saddle; Somerset, Dorset. hered to the article. Compare apron, Slag-an, to strike-slay (the hard g from naperon (compare with napkin, been refined into a y), slaughter; slog, napery); umpire, from numpire. The sledge (in sledge-hammer). opposite example of the n leaving the Slip-an, to slip-slop; slipper, sleeve (into article and adhering to the noun, is which the arm is slipped). found in nag, from an äg; nickname Snic-an, to crawl — sneak, snake, snail from an ekename.

(here the hard guttural has been refined Nasu, a nose-nose, naze, ness (all three away).

different forms of the same word, and Spell, a story or message--spell (= to give

has

1 The w in whole is intrusive and non-organic, as in whoop, and in wun (=one, so pronounced, but not so written). Before the year 1500 whole was always written hole ; and in this form it is seen to be a doublet of hale. Holy is simply hole+y.

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