Opinion. Position.


Poison. Benediction. Benison.
Redemption. Ransom. Malediction. Malison.

(i) Potion, poison, and the three other pairs are doublets - the first having come through the door of books straight from the Latin, the second through the mouth and ear, from French.

(ii) Venison (hunted flesh, from venationem), season (sationem, the sowing time), belong to the above set.

19. Ment (Lat. mentum) denotes an instrument or an act, as in

Document. Instrument. Monument. Ornament. (i) It combines easily with English words to make hybrids, as atonement, acknowledgment, bewitchment, fulfilment.

20. Mony (Lat. monium) makes abstract nouns, as

Acrimony. Matrimony. Sanctimony.


21. Oon or on (Fr. on; Ital. one), an augmentative, as in-



Trombone. Truncheon. (i) Augmentatives are the opposite of diminutives. Contrast balloon and ballot ; galleon and galliot (a small galley).

(ii) A balloon is a large ball; a cartoon a big carte; a dragoon a large dragon ; a saloon a large hall (salle); flagon (O. Fr. flascon), a large flask; million, a big thousand (mille); pennon, a large pen or feather; galleon, a large galley; trombone, a large trump-et; truncheon, a large staff (or trunk) of office.

22. Ory, (Lat. orium), which appears also as or, our, and er, and denotes place, as in

Auditory. Dormitory. Reféctory. Lavatory.

Dormer. Manger. (i) Mirror is contracted by the French from miratorium; parlour from par. latorium; manger from manducatorium=the eating-place. Dormer is short for dormitory, from dormitorium.

23. Our (Lat. or ; Fr. eur), forms abstract or collective nouns, as




(i) The ending resumes its French form in grandeur.
(ii) It forms a hybrid in behaviour.

24. Or or our (Lat. orem ; Fr. eur) denotes an agent, as in-

Emperor. Saviour.
(i) This ending is disguised in interpreter, labourer, preacher, etc.

(ii) A large number of nouns which used to end in our or or, took er through the influence of the English suffix er. They were "attracted ” into that form.

25. T (Lat. tus—the ending of the past participle) indicates a completed act, as inAct. Fact. Joint.

Suit. (i) The t in Latin has the same origin and performs the same function as the d in English (as in dead, finished, and other past participles, etc.)

(ii) The ending is disguised in feat, which is a doublet of fact, in fruit (Lat. fruct-us), comfit (=confect), counterfeit (=contrafact-um).

26. Ter (Lat. ter) denotes a person, as in-
Master (contracted from magister).

(i) Magister comes from magis, more, which contains the root of magnus, great ;
minister from minus, less.

27. Tery (Lat. terium) denotes condition, as in-


28. Trix (Lat. trix) denotes a female agent, as in-

(i) This ending is disguised in empress (Fr. impératrice from Lat. imperatrix);
and in nurse (Fr. nourrice, Lat. nutrix).

29. Tude (Lat. tudinem), denotes condition, as in

Altitude. Beatitude. Fortitude. Multitude. (i) In custom, from Lat. consuetudinem, the ending is disguised.

30. Ty (Lat. tatem; Fr. té) makes abstract nouns, as in-

Charity Cruelty. Poverty.
Captivity. Frailty. Fealty. Vanity.
(i) Bounty (bonté), poverty (pauvreté), frailty, and fealty come, not directly
from Latin, but through French.

31. Ure (Lat. ura) denotes an action, or the result of an action, as inAperture. Cincture.


Picture. 32. Y (Lat. ia ; Fr. ie) denotes condition or faculty, as in

Company. Family. Fury Victory
(i) This suffix unites easily with English words in er-as bakery, fishery, rob-
bery, etc.

(ii) It stands for Lat. ium in augury, remedy, study, subsidy, etc.
(iii) It represents the Lat. ending atus in attorney, deputy, ally, quarry.

24. The Latin (or French) suffixes employed in our language to make Adjectives are very useful. The following are the chief

Latin Suffixes for Adjectives.

1. Aceous (Lat. aceus) made of, as in-
Argillaceous (clayey).

Farinaceous (floury).

2. Al (Lat. alis) = belonging to, as in-

Royal. (i) Loyal and royal are the same words as legal and regal; but, in passing through French, the hard g has been refined into a y.

3. An, ane, or ain (Lat. anus and aneus) = connected with, as inCertain. Human (homo). Humane. Pagan (pagus, a

district). (i) This ending disguises itself in mizzen (medianus); in surgeon (chirurgianus); and in sexton (contracted from sacristan).

(ii) In champaign (level), and foreign (foraneus), this ending greatly disguises itself. In strange (extraneus), still more. All have been strongly influenced in their passage through the French.

4. Ant, ent (Lat. antem, entem, acc. of pres. part.), as inCurrent (curro, I run).

Distant. President. Discordant.

5. Ar (Lat. āris) which appears also as er = belonging to, as inRegular. Singular. Secular.

Premier. (i) Premier (Lat. primarius), has received its present spelling by passing through French.

6. Ary (Lat. ārius), which also takes the secondary formations of arious and arian = belonging to, as in

Contrary. Necessary. Gregarious. Agrarian.
7. Atic (Lat. åticus) = belonging to, as in-
Fanatic (fanum).

Lunatic. 8. Able, ible, ble (Lat. ābilis, ěbilis, Ibilis) capable of being,

as in

Culpable. Flexible.

Movable. (i) Feeble (Lat. flebilis, worthy of being wept over), comes to us through the 0. Fr. floible.

(ii) This suffix unites easily with English roots to form hybrids, like eatable, drinkable, teachable, gullible. Carlyle has also doable.

9. Ple, ble (Lat. plex, from plico, I fold) = the English suffix-fold, as in

Simple (=onefold). Double. Triple. Treble.

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10. Esque (Lat. iscus ; Fr. esque) partaking of, as in

Burlesque. Grotesque (grotto). Picturesque. (i) This ending is disguised in Danish, French, etc.; and in morris (dance) = Moresco (or Moorish). 11. IC (Lat. Icus) - belonging to, as in

Gigantic. Metallic. Public (populus). Rustic. (i) This ending is disguised in indigo (from Indicus [colour] = the Indian colour.)

12. Id (Lat. idus)


having the quality of, as inFrigid.



13. Ile, il (Lat. Olis), often used as a passive suffix, as in-

Civil. (i) Fragile, in passing through French, lost the g—which was always hardand became frail.

(ii) The suffix ile is disguised in gentle and subtle.
(iii) Gentile, gentle, and genteel, are all different forms of the same word.
(iv) Kennel ( = canile) is really an adjective from canis.

14. Ine (Lat. Inus) = belonging to, as inCanine.

Crystalline. Divine. Saline. (i) In marine, the ending, by passing through French, has acquired a French pronunciation.

15. Ive (Lat. Ivus) inclined to, as in-
Active, Fugitive.

Plaintive. (i) This ending appears also as iff, by passing through French, as in caitiff (= captivus); and in the nouns plaintiff and bailiff.

(ii) It also disguises itself as a y in hasty, jolly, testy, which in 0. Fr. were hastif, jollis, testif (= heady).

(iii) It unites with the English word talk to form the hybrid talkative.

16. Lent (Lat. lentus) full of, as in

Corpulent. Fraudulent. Opulent (opes).

Violent (vis).

17. Ory (Lat. Orius)


full of, as in



18. Ose, ous (Lat. Ösus) = full of, as in

Bellicose. Grandiose. Verbose. Curious. (i) The form in ous has been influenced by the French ending eux.

19. Ous (Lat. us) = belonging to, as inAnxious. Assiduous. Ingenuous.

Omnivorous. (i) It unites with English words to form the hybrids wondrous, boisterous, righteous (which is an imitative corruption of the 0.E. rihtwis).

20. Und (Lat. undus) full of, as inJocund. Moribund.

Rotund. (i) Rotund has been shortened into round. Second is, through French, from Lat. secundus (from sequor, I follow)—the number that follows the first. Ventus secundus is a favourable wind, or a “wind that follows fast.”

(ii) This ending is slightly modified in vagabond and second.

21. Ulous (Lat. úlus) = full of, as in

Querulous (full of complaint).


25. The following are the chief

Latin Suffixes for Verbs.

1. Ate (Lat. atum, supine), as in

Complicate. Dilate. Relate. Supplicate. (i) Assassinate (from the Arabic hashish, a preparation of Indian hemp, whose effects are similar to those of opiuin) is a hybrid.

2. Esce (Lat. esco), a frequentative suffix, as in

Coalesce (to grow together). Effervesce (to boil up).

3. Fy (Lat. fico; Fr. fie—from Lat. facio)=to make, as in-


4. Ish (connected with Lat. esco)=to make, as in

Admonish. Establish. Finish.


5. Ete, ite, t (Lat. itum, etum, tum), with an active function, as inComplete. Delete.



26. The suffixes which the English language has adopted from Greek are not numerous; but some of them are very useful. Most of them are employed to make nouns. The following are the chief

Greek Suffixes.

1. Y (Gr. 1a), makes abstract nouns, as in

Melancholy. Monarchy. Necromancy. Philosophy.
(i) Fancy is a compressed form of phantasy (phantasia = imagination).
(ii) The Iliad is the story of Ilion (Troy), written by Homer.

2. Ic (Gr. 1xós)=belonging to, as in

Aromatic. Barbaric. Frantic. Graphic.

Arithmetic. Schismatic. Logic. Music. (i) With the addition of the Latin alis, adjectives are formed from some of these words, as logical, musical, etc.

(ii) The plural form of some adjectives also makes nouns of them, as in politics, ethics, physics. In Ireland we find also logics.

(iii) Arithmetic, logic, and music are fronı Greek nouns ending in ikē.

3. Sis (Gr. ols)=action, as in

Analysis. Emphasis. Genesis. Synthesis. (i) In the following words sis has become sy, as hypocrisy, poesy, palsy (short for paralysis).

(ii) In the following the is has dropped away altogether- ellipse, phase.

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