7. Ful full, as in

Hateful. Needful. Sinful. Wilful. 8. Ish (O.E. isc) has three functions ; it denotes :(i) Partaking in the nature of, as in

Boorish. Childish. Churlish. Waspish. (ii) A milder or sub-form of the quality, as in

Blackish. Greenish. Whitish. Goodish. (iii) A patrial relation as in

English. Irish. Scottish. Welsh (= Wylisc). 9. Le, with a diminutive tendency, as inLittle (lyt).

Brittle (from break). Fickle (unsteady). 10. Less (O.E. leâs), loose from, as in

Fearless. Helpless. Sinless. Toothless. 11. Like (O.E. lîc), softened in ly, as in

Childlike. Dovelike. Wifelike. Warlike.

Godly. Manly. Womanly. Ghastly (= ghostlike). 12. Ow (O.E. u and wa), as in

Narrow. Callow. Fallow. Yellow. (i) Fallow is connected with the adjective pale, and yellow with the yol in yolk. 13. Right, with the sense of direction, as in

Forthright. Downright. Upright. 14. Some (O.E. sum, a form of same, like), as in

Buxom (from bugan, Gladsome. Lissom (=lithesome).

to bend). Irksome.

Gamesome. Winsome. 15. Teen (0.E. tyne) ten by addition, as in

Thirteen. Fourteen. Fifteen. Sixteen.
(i) In thirteen = three + ten, the r has changed its place by metathesis.

(ii) In fifteen, the hard f has replaced the soft v.
16. Ty (0.E. tig) = tens by multiplication, as in-

Twenty ( = twain-ty). Thirty ( = three-ty). Forty. 17. Ward (O.E. weard, from weorthan, to become), denoting direction, as inFroward (from).


Untoward. Awkward (from awk, Homeward.

Seaward. contrary). (i) This ending, ward, has no connection with ward, a keeper. It is connected with the verb worth in the line, “Woe worth the chase, woe worth the day !”

18. Wise (0.E. wîs, mode, manner), as in

Righteous (properly rightwise). Boisterous (O.E. bostwys). (i) The English or Teutonic ending wise has got confused with the Lat. ending ous (from osus = full of).

19. Y (O.E. 18, the guttural of which has vanished) forms adjectives from nouns and verbs, as inBloody. Crafty.

Dusty. Heavy (heave). Mighty. Silly (soul). Stony. Weary.

21. The following are the most important

English Suffixes for Adverbs :-
1. Ere, denoting place in, as in

Where. 2. Es or s (the old genitive or possessive), which becomes se and ce,

as in

[blocks in formation]

3. Ly (0.E. lice, the dative of lîc), as in-
Only (=onely). Badly. Willingly.

Utterly. 4. Ling, long, denotes direction, as in

Darkling. Grovelling. Headlong Sidelong (i) Grovelling is not really a present participle; it is an adverb, and was in 0.E. gruflynges.

(ii) We once had also the adverbs flatlings and noselings. 5. Meal (O. E. maelum = at times), as inPiecemeal.

Limbmeal. (i) Shakespeare, in “Cymbeline,” has the line

O that I had her here, to tear her limbmeal." (ii) Chaucer has stound-meal = hour by hour; King Alfred has stykkemaelum =stick-meal, or here and there. 6. Om (an old dative plural), as in

Whilom (= in old times). Seldom (from seld, rare).
7. Ther, which denotes place to, as in-

Whither. 8. Ward or wards, which denotes direction, as in

Homeward. Homewards. Backwards. Downwards.

9. Wise (O.E. wis, manner, mode), as in

Anywise. Nowise. Otherwise. Likewise.

“Some people are wise; and some are otherwise."

22. The following are the most important

English Suffixes for Verbs :-
1. Le or 1 has two functions :-
(i) Frequentative, as in--
Dabble (dab). Grapple (grab).

Waddle (wade).
Dribble (drip).

Drizzle (from dreósan, to fall). Jostle.
(ii) Diminutive, as in-
Dazzle (daze).
Nibble (dip).


Sparkle. 2. Er or r adds a frequentative or intensive force to the original verb, as in

Batter (beat). Chatter. Glitter (glow). Flutter (fit).
Glimmer (gleam). Clatter.

Sputter (spit).
Stammer. Stutter.

Er has also the function of making causative verbs out of adjectives, as linger
(long), lower, hinder.
3. En or n makes causative verbs out of nouns and adjectives, as in-
Brighten. Fatten.

Lighten. Lengthen.
Broaden. Gladden. Soften.


Talk (tell).

4. K has a frequentative force, as in-
Hark (hear).

Stalk (stcal).
5. S or se has a causative force, as in-

Cleanse (clean). Curse.

Rinse (from hreinn).

23. The Suffixes of Latin origin are of great importance; and they have been of great use for several centuries. Many of them—indeed, most of them—have been influenced by passing through French mouths, and hence have undergone considerable change. The following are the chief

Latin and French Suffixes for Nouns :1. Age (Lat. aticum), which forms either abstract or collective nouns, as in

Beverage. Courage. Carnage. Homage.

Marriage. Personage. Vassalage. Vintage.
(i) It unites easily with English roots to form hybrids, as in bondage, mileage,
tonnage, poundage, tillage, shrinkage.
2. An, ain, or ane (Lat. ānus), connected with, as in-

Chaplain. Captain. Humane.

(i) The suffix is disguised in sovereign (O. Fr. soverain), which has been wrongly
supposed to have something to do with reign; in warden, citizen, surgeon, etc.

Milton always spells sovereign, sovran.

3. Al or el (Lat. alis), possessing the quality of, as in-


Hospital. Hostel.


(i) Canal and channel are two different forms-doublets-of the same.

So are cattle and chattels (capitalia).

(ii) Hospital, spital, hostel, hotel, are four forms of the one Latin word hospitalium. (Ostler is a shorter form of hosteller, with a dropped h.) 4. Ant or ent (Latin antem or entem), denotes an agent, as in

Assistant. Servant. Agent. Student.

5. Ance, ancy, or ence, ency (Lat. antia, entia), form abstract nouns,

as in

Abundance. Chance. Distance. Brilliancy.
Diligence. Indulgence. Constancy.

Consistency. (i) Chance comes from late Lat. cadentia=an accident. Cadence is a doublet. 6. Ary, ry, or er (Lat. arium), a place where a thing is kept, as inApiary (apis, a bee). Armoury.



Vestry. Larder. Saucer. (i) The ending ry unites freely with English words to form hybrids, as in cookery, piggery, robbery.

(ii) In Jewry, jewellery (or jewelry), poultry, peasantry, cavalry, the ry has a collective meaning.

7. Ary, ier, eer, or er (Lat. arius), denotes a person engaged in some trade or profession, as in

Commissary. Notary. Secretary Statuary.

Brigadier. Engineer. Mountaineer. Mariner. (i) This ending is disguised in chancellor (cancellarius), vicar, butler (=bottler), usher (ostiarius, a doorkeeper), premier, etc.

8. Ate (Lat. atus, past participle ending), becoming in French e or ée, denotes(i) An agent, as inAdvocate. Curate. Legate.

(ii) The object of an action, as in-

AT In grandee the passive signification is not retained.
9. Ce (Lat. cium, tium, or tia) forms abstract nouns, as-



Grace. 10. El, le or 1 (Lat. ŭlus, ellus, etc.), a diminutive, as in

Angle (a little corner). Buckle (from bucca, the cheek).

Castle. Chapel. Libel. Pommel. Title. Seal. (i) A buckle used to have a cast of the human face. (ii) Castle, from Lat. castellum, a little fort, from castrum, a fort. (iii) Libel, from Lat. libellus, a little book (liber). (iv) Pommel, from Lat. pomum, an apple. (v) Seal from Lat. sigillum.

11. Ern (Lat. erna), denoting place, as inCavern.

Cistern. Lantern.


12. Et, ette, and let (Fr. et, ette) all diminutives, as in-
Bassinette. Buffet.

Chaplet. Coronet.

Puppet. Trumpet. Ticket.

Turret. (i) The let is=1 + et, and is found in bracelet, fillet, cutlet, etc. It also unites with English words to form hybrids-as in hamlet, leaflet, ringlet, streamlet, etc.

(ii) This ending is disguised in ballot (a small ball), chariot (car), parrot (=perroquet), etc.

13. Ess (late Lat. issa), a female agent, as in

Empress. Governess. Marchioness. Sorceress. (i) It unites with English words to form the hybrids murderess, sempstress (The last is a double feminine, as seamestre is the old word.)

14. Ice, ise, or ess (Lat. tia ; Fr. esse), as in

Avarice. Cowardice. Justice. Merchandise.
Distress. Largess.

Noblesse. Riches. (i) It is a significant mark of the carelessness with which the English language has always been written, that the very same ending should appear in three spellings in largess, noblesse, riches.

(ii) Riches is a false plural: it is an abstract noun, the French form being richesse.

15. Ice (Lat. icem acc. of nouns in x), which has also the forms of ise, ace, as inChalice. Pumice.

Mortise. Furnace.
(i) The suffix is much disguised in radish (=the root, from radīcem).
(ii) It is also disguised in partridge and judge (judicem).

16. Icle (Lat. iculus, ellus, ulus), which appears also as cel and sel, a diminutive, as in-

Article (a little joint). Particle. Receptacle. Versicle.
Parcel (particella). Morsel (from mordeo, I bite).

Damsel (dominicella, a little lady). (i) The ending is disguised in rule (regula), carbuncle (from carbo, a coal), uncle (avunculus), and vessel (from vas).

(ii) Parcel and particle are doublets.

17. Ine or in (Lat. inus) related to, as inDivine (noun).

Cousin. (i) Cousin is a contraction — through French—of the Latin consobrinus, the child of a mother's sister.

(ii) The ending is disguised in pilgrim, from peregrinus = from per agros, through the fields.

18. Ion (Lat. ionem), which appears also as tion, sion, and, from French, as son, som, denotes an action, as in

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