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3. Ana (åvá), up, again, back, as inAnatomy. Analysis.
Anachronism. 4. Anti (åvri), against or opposite to, as in
Antidote. Antipathy. Antipodes. Antarctic. 5. Apo (åró), away from, which also becomes ap, as in
Apostate. Apostle. Apology. Aphelion. 6. Arch, archi, arche (åpxń), chief, as in
Archbishop. Archangel. Architect. Archetype. 7. Auto (aŭtós), self, which becomes auth, as in
Autocrat. Autograph. Autotype. Authentic. 8. Cata, cat (kard), down, as in
Catalogue. Catapult. Catechism. Cathedral. 9. Dia (did), through, across, as inDiameter. Diagram.
Diagonal. (i) This prefix is disguised in devil—from Gr. diabolos, the accuser or slanderer, from Gr. diaballein, to throw across. 10. Dis, di (dís), twice, as in
Dissyllable. Diphthong. Dilemma, 11. Dys (dus), ill, as in
Dysentery. Dyspeptic (contrasts with Eupeptic). 12. Ec, ex (ek, ¿E), out of, as inEccentric. Ecstasy.
Exodus. Exotic. 13. En (év), in, which becomes el and em, as in
Encyclical. Encomium. Ellipse. . Emphasis. 14. Epi, ep (éni), upon, as in
Epitaph. Epiphany. Epoch. Ephemeral. 15. Eu (€ů), well, which also becomes ev, as in
Euphemism. Eulogy. Evangelist. 16. Hemi (rul), half, as in
Henisphere. Hemistich (half a line in poetry). 17. Hyper (úmép), over and above, as in
Hyperborean. Hyperbolé. Hypercritical. Hypermetrical. 18. Hypo, hyp úró), under, as in
Hypocrite. Hypotenuse. Hyphen. 19. Meta, met (uets), after, changed for, as in
Metaphor. Metamorphosis. Metonymy. Method. 20. Mono, mon (uóvos), alone, as inMonogram. Monody.
21. Pan (Tây), all, as in
22. Para (napá), by the side of, which becomes par, as in-
Prophet. Prologue. Proboscis. Problem.
18. The Suffixes employed in the English language are much more numerous than the Prefixes, and much more useful. Like the Prefixes, they come to us from three sources—from Old English (or Anglo-Saxon); from Latin (or French); and from Greek. 19. The following are the most important
English Suffixes to Nouns 1. Ard or art (=habitual), as in
Braggart. Coward. Drunkard. Dullard.
Laggard. Niggard. Sluggard. Wizard.
Leechcraft (=medicine). Priestcraft. Witchcraft.
Rimecraft (old name for Arithmetic).
Thread (throw). (ii) Drift (drive).
Draught (draw). Flight (fy).
Height (high: Milton Shrift (shrive).
Weft (weave). (iii) Aftermath (mow). Berth (bear).
4. Dom (0.E. dôm=doom), power, office, from deman, to judge, as in
Dukedom. Kingdom. Halidom (=holiness).
(i) In 0.E. we had bisceopdóm (= bishopdom); and Carlyle has accustomed us to rascalılom and scoundreldom.
5. En (a diminutive), as inChicken (cock).
Maiden. (i) The addition of a syllable has a tendency to modify the preceding vowel--as in kitchen (from cook), vixen (from fox), and nătional (from nātion). 6. Er, which has three functions, to denote(i) An agent, as inBaker. Dealer. Leader.
Writer, (ii) An instrument, as inFinger (from 0. E. fangan, to take). Stair (from stigan, to mount). (iii) A male agent, as inFuller (from fullian, to cleanse). Player. Sower. IT The ending er has become disguised in beggar and sailor (not sailer,
which is a ship). Under the influence of Norinan-French, an i or y creeps in before the r, as in collier (from coal), lawyer, glazier (from
glass), etc. 7. Hood (O.E. hâd), state, rank, person, as in
Brotherhood. Childhood. Priesthood. Wifehood. (i) In Godhead, this suffix takes the form of head.
8. Ing (originally=son of) part, as inFarthing (fourth). Riding (trithing=thirding). Tithing (tenth).
(i) This suffix is found as a patronymic in many proper names, such as Browning, Harding; and in Kensington, Whittington, etc.
(ii) Lording (=the son of a lord) and whiting (from white) are also diminutives.
(iii) This ing is to be carefully distinguished from the ing (=ung) which was the old suffix for verbal nouns, as clothing, learning, etc. 9. Kin (a diminutive), as inBodkin. Firkin (from four).
Lambkin. Mannikin. (i) It is also found in proper names, as in Dawkins (=little David), Jenkins (=son of little John), Hawkins (=son of little Hal), Perkins (=son of little Peter). 10. Ling =1+ing (both diminutives), as in
Darling (from dear). Duckling. Gosling (goose).
Hireling. Nestling. (i) Every dininutive has a tendency to run into depreciation, as in groundling, underling, worldling, etc.
(ii) In some words, ing has been weakened into y or ie, as in Johnnie, Billy, Betty, etc.
11. Le or 1, as in
Beadle (from beodan, to bid). Bundle (bind). Saddle (seat).
Sail. 12. Lock (O.E. lâc, gift, sport), which also becomes ledge, as inKnowledge.
Feohtlác (battle). (i) This is not to be confused with the lock and lick in the names of plants, which in 0. E. was leac, and which we find in hemlock, charlock; garlick (= spear plant) and barley (=berelic). 13. Ness forms abstract nouns from adjectives, as in
Darkness. Holiness. Weakness. Weariness. (i) Witness differs from the above in two respects : (a) it comes from a verbwitan, to know; and (b) is not always an abstract noun.
(ii) This English suffix combines very easily with foreign roots, as in acuteness, commodiousness, gracefulness, remoteness, and many others.
14. Nd (which is the ending of the present participle in 0.E.), found in
Friend (=the loving one). Fiend (=the hating one).
Wind (from a root vá, to blow).
15. Ock (a diminutive), as in-
Hillock. Ruddock (=redbreast).
Pollock (from Paul). Maddox (from Matthew). Wilcox (from William).
16. M or om, which forms nouns from verbs, as in-
Qualm (from quell).
Seam (from sew).
Team (from tow). (i) This suffix unites with the Norman-French word réal (royal) to form the hybrid realm. 17. Red (mode, fash on-and also counsel), as inHatred. Kindred.
Sibrede (relationship). (i) This ending is also found in proper nouns. Thus we have Mildred=mild in counsel ; Ethelred=noble in counsel, called also Unrede, which does not mean unready, but without counsel. 18. Ric (O.E. ríce, power, dominion)—as in bishopric.
(i) In 0.E. we had abbotric, hevenricke, and kingric. 19. Ship (O.E. scipe, shape or form), which is also spelled scape and skip, makes abstract nouns, as inFellowship Friendship.
Lordship Landscape. Workmanship, Worship (=worthship). (i) Miļton writes landskip for landscape.
20. Stead (O.E. stéde, place), as in
Bedstead. Homestead. Hampstead. Berkhamstead. 21. Ster was originally the form of er, the suffix for a male agent: it has now two functions :(i) It denotes an agent, as inHuckster (hawker).
Maltster. Songster. Roadster. (ii) It has an element of depreciation in
Gamester. Punster. Oldster. Youngster. (iii) We had, in Old English, baxter (fem. of baker), webster (weaver), brewster, fithelstre (fiddler), sea mestre (sewer), and even belleringestre (for female bellringer). Most of these are now used as proper names.
(iv) Spinster is the feminine of spinner, one form of which was spinder, which then became spider. 22. Ther, der, or ter denotes the agent—with the notion of duality
Brother. Bladder (blow). Rudder (row). Water (wet).
Winter (wind). 23. Wright (from work, by metathesis of the r), as in
Shipwright. Wainwright (=waggonwright). Wheelwright. 24. Ward, a keeper, as in
Hayward Steward (=sty-ward). Woodward. (i) Ward has also the Norman-French form of guard. (ii) In steward, the word stige or sty ineant stall for horses, cows, etc.
20. The following are the most important
English Suffixes to Adjectives :1. Ed or d, the ending for the passive participle, as in
Cold (=chilled). Long-eared. Lauded. Talented. 2. En, denoting material, as in
Golden. Silvern. Flaxen. Hempen.
Oaken. Wooden. Silken. Linen (from lin, flax). 3. En, the old ending for the passive participle, as in
Drunken. Forlorn. Molten. Hewn. 4. Ern, denoting quarter, as in
Eastern. Western. Northern. Southern.
5. Fast (0.E. faest, firm), as in
Steadfast. Rootfast. Shamefast (wrongly shamefaced).