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6. Of or off (which are two spellings of the same word), as-
Offal (that which falls off").
7. On, as in onset, onslaught, onward.
8. Out, which takes also the form of ut, as inOutbreak.
9. Over (the comparative of the ove in above), which combines :---
(ii) With adjectives, as in
Over-bold. Over-merry. (Shakespeare is very fond of such forms.)
(iii) With verbs, as in
10. Thorough or through, two forms of the same word, as inThroughout Through-train. Thorough-bred. Thoroughfare.
Shakespeare has "thorough bush, thorough brier, thorough flood, thorough fire.” 11. Twi =
two, in twilight, twin, twist, etc. 12. Under, which goes :(i) With verbs, as inUnderlie. Undersell.
Undergo. (ii) With nouns, as inUnderhand.
16. There are in use in our language many Latin Prefixes; and many of them are of great service. Some of them, as circum (about), come to us direct from Latin ; others, like counter (against), have come to us through the medium of French. The following are the most important
Latin Prefixes :
1. A, ab, abs (Fr. a, av), away from, as in-
Abstain. Avaunt. Advantage (which ought to be avantage). 2. Ad (Fr. a), to, which in composition becomes ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, at, to assimilate with the first consonant of the root. The following are examples of each :Adapt. Affect.
Amputate. 4. Ante (Fr. an), before, as in
Antedate. Antechamber. Ancestor ( = antecessor).
Biscuit ( = biscoctus, twice baked).
Circuit. 7. Cum, with, in French com, which becomes col, con, cor, coun, and co before a vowel, as inCompound. Collect.
Countenance. Coeval. Coöperate.
(ii) Co, though of Latin origin, can go with purely English words, as in coworker, co-understanding. These are not desirable compounds.
8. Contra (Fr. contre), against, which also becomes contro and counter, as inContradict. Controvert.
Counterbalance. (i) In counterweigh and counterwork we find it in union with English roots. (ii) In encounter we find it converted into a root.
9. De (Fr. de), down, from, about, as in-
(i) negative in destroy, deform, desuetude, etc.
10. Dis, di (Fr. des, de), asunder, in two, as inDissimilar.
Delay. (i) Dis is also joined with English roots to make the hybrids disown, dislike, distrust, distaste.
11. Ex, e (Fr. es, e), out of, from, as in
Exalt. Exhale. Expatriate (patria, one's country).
etc. (ii) In amend (emendo), astonish (étonner), the e is disguised. (iii) In sample (short for example), scorch (O. Fr. escorcer), and special (for especial), the e has fallen away.
12. Extra, beyond, as in
Extraneous. Extraordinary. Extravagant. (i) In stranger (O. Fr, estranger, from Lat. extraneus) the e has fallen away. 13. In (Fr. en, em), in, into, which changes into 11, im, ir, as inInvade.
Invent (to come upon). Infer.
Envoy. (i) It unites with English roots to make the hybrids embody, embolden, endear, entrust, enlighten, etc.
(ii) In ambush (Ital. imboscarsi, to put one's self in a wood), the in is disguised. 14. In, not, which becomes il, im, ir, and ig, as in
Inconvenient. Illiberal. Impious. Irrelevant.
Incautious. Illegal. Impolitic. Ignoble. (i) The English prefix un sometimes takes its place, and forms hybrids with Latin roots in unable, unapt, uncomfortable.
(ii) Shakespeare has unpossible, unproper, and many others. 15. Inter, intro (Fr. entre), between, among—as in Intercede.
Enterprise. 16. Male (Fr. mau), ill, as in
Malediction, (contracted through French into)
17. Mis (Fr. mes, from Latin minus), less, as inMisadventure.
Mischief. Caution. —Not to be confounded with the English prefix mis in mistake, mistrust, etc. 18. Non, not, as inNonsense. Non-existent.
Nonsuit. (i) The initial n has dropped off in umpire, formerly numpire =0. Fr. nonperLat. nonpar, not equal.
(ii) The n has fallen away likewise from norange, napron (connected with napkin, napery), etc., by wrongly cleaving to the indefinite article a. 19. Ob, against, becomes oc, of, op, etc., as inObtain. Occur, Offend.
Penultimate (the last but one).
Pilgrim. (i) Pilgrim comes from peregrinus, a person who wanders per agros, through the fields,-by the medium of Ital. pellegrino.
(ii) Perhaps is a hybrid.
Postscript. (i) The post is much disguised in puny, which comes from the French puis né =Lat. post natus, born after. A “puny judge" is a junior judge, or a judge of a later creation. 23. Præ, pre (Fr. pré), before, as in
Predict. Presume. Pretend. Prevent. (i) It is shortened into a pr in prize, prison, apprehend, comprise (all from prehendo, I seize).
(ii) It is disguised in provost (prepositus, one placed over), in preach (from predico, I speak before), and provender (from præbeo, I furnish). 24. Præter, beyond, as in
Preternatural. Preterite (beyond the present). Pretermit.
Recover. Refer. Redeem. Redound. Readmit. Recreant. (i) It is much disguised in rally (=re-ally), in ransom (a shortened Fr. form of redemption), and in runagate (=renegade, one who has denied-negavit—his faith).
(ii) It combines with English roots to form the hybrids relay, reset, recall.
27. Retro, backwards—as in retrograde, retrospect.
Seduce. Sedition. 29. Sub (Fr. sous or sou), under, which becomes suc, suf, sud, sum, sup, sur, and sus, as inSubtract.
Supplant. Surrender. Suspend. (i) Sub is disguised in sojourn (from 0. Fr. sojorner, from Low Latin subdiurnāre), and in sudden (from Latin subitaneus).
(ii) It combines with English roots to form the hybrids sublet, subworker, subkingdom, etc. 30. Subter, beneath-as in subterfuge. 31. Super (Fr. sur), above, as inSupernatural.
Surtout (over-all). (i) It is disguised in sovereign (which Milton more correctly spells sovran), from Low Latin superanus. 32. Trans (Fr. trés), beyond, which becomes tra, as in
Translate. Transport. Transform. Transitive.
Trespass. (i) It is disguised in treason (the Fr, form of tradition, from trado (=transdo), I give up), in betray and traitor (from the same Latin root), in trance and entrance (Latin transitus, a passing beyond), and in trestle (from Latin diminutive transtillum, a little cross-beam). 33. Ultra, beyond, as inUltra-Liberal. Ultra-Tory.
Unicorn 35. Vice (Fr. vice), in the place of, as in
Viceroy. Vicar. Vice-chancellor. Viscount.
17. Our language possesses also a considerable number of prefixes transferred from the Greek language, many of which are very useful. The following are the most important
Greek Prefixes :1. An, a (åv, å), not, as in
Anarchy. Anonymous. Apteryx (the wingless). Atheist. 2. Amphi (åuol), on both sides, as inAmphibious.