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Daisy (=day's eye).

Lapwing (=leap-wing). Evensong.

Nightingale (=night-singer). Garlic (=gar-leek=spear-leek ; Orchard (=ort-yard=wort-yard, i.e., 0.E. gár, spear).

herb-garden). Gospel (=God's spell=story). Stirrup (=stig-râp=rising rope). Housetop.

Tadpole (=toad-head. Pole=poll, a Huzzy (=housewife).

head, as in poll-tax). Icicle (=is-gicel=ice-jag).

Wednesday (=Woden's day).
(ü) Noun and Adjective, as
Blackbird.
Midnight.

Quicksilver.
Freeman.
Midsummer.

Twilight (=two lights). AT Blackbird has the accent on black, and is one word. A blackbird need not be a black bird'.

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9. There are in the language a great many compound adjectives, such as heart-whole, sea-sick, etc.; and these are formed in a large number of different ways.

Compound adjectives may be formed in the following ways :

(i) Noun + Adjective, as purse-proud, wind-swift, way-weary, seagreen, lily-white.

(ii) Noun + Present Participle, as ear-piercing, death-boding, heartrending, spirit-stirring, sea-faring, night-walking, home-keeping.

(iii) Noun + Passive Participle, as moth-eaten, worm-eaten, tempesttossed, way.laid, forest-born, copper-fastened, moss-clad, sea-girt.

(iv) Adverb + Present Participle, as far-darting, everlasting, highstepping, well-meaning, long-suffering, far-reaching, hard-working

(v) Adverb + Passive Participle, as high-born, “ill-weaved,” well-bred, thorough-bred, high-strung, ill-pleased.

(vi) Noun + Noun + ed, as hare-brained, dog-hearted, beetle-headed, periwig-pated, club-footed, lily-livered, trumpet-tongued, eagle-eyed.

(vii) Adjective + Noun +ed, as evil-eyed, grey-headed, thin-faced, empty-headed, tender-hearted, thick-lipped, two-legged, three-cornered, four-sided, high-minded, bald-pated.

(viii) Noun + Noun, as bare-foot, lion-heart, iron-side.
(ix) Adverb + Noun +ed, as down-hearted, under-handed.

COMPOUND VERBS. 10. There are not many compound verbs in the English language. The few that there are are formed thus :(i) Verb and Noun, as Backbite. Hamstring.

Hoodwink.
Browbeat.
Henpeck.

Kiln-dry.
(ii) Verb and Adjective, as -
Dumfound.

Fulfil (=fill full). Whitewash. (iii) Verb and Adverb, as

Doff (=do off). Dout (=do out). Cross-question.
Don (=do on). Dup (=do up).

Outdo.

THE FORMATION OF ADVERBS. 11. Adverbs are derived from Nouns, from Adjectives, from Pronouns, and from Prepositions.

a. Adverbs derived from Nouns are either: (i) Old Possessives, or (ii) oid Datives, or (iii) Compounds of a Noun and a Preposition :

(i) Old Possessives : Needs=of need, or of necessity. The Calendrer says to John Gilpin about his hat and wig

“My head is twice as big as yours,

They therefore needs must fit."
Of the same class are: always, nowadays, betimes.

(ii) Old Datives. These are seldom and the old-fashioned whilom (=in old times).

(iii) Compounds : anon=(in one moment), abed (=on bed) asleep, aloft, abroad, indeed, of a truth, by turns, perchance, perhaps.

b. Adverbs derived from Adjectives are either: (i) Old Possessives, or (ii) old Datives, or (iii) Compounds of an Adjective and a Preposition :

(i) Old Possessives : else (ell-es, possessive of al=other), unawares, once (=ones), twice, thrice, etc.

(ii) Old Datives. The old English way of forming an adverb was simply to use the dative case of the adjective--which ended in ë. Thus we had deepē, brightë, for deeply and brightly. Then the ë dropped away. Hence it is that there are in English several adverbs exactly like adjectives. These are : fast, hard, right (in “Right Reverend"), far, ill, late, early, loud, high.

(iii) Compounds of an Adjective and a Preposition: on high, in vain, in short, at large, of late, etc.

C. Adverbs derived from Pronouns come from the pronominal stems : who, the (or this), and he. The following is a table, and it is important to note the beautiful correspondences :

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(i) How and why are two forms of the same word—the instrumental case of who. How=in what way? Why=with what reason ?

(ii) The, in the last column, is the adverbial the (A.S. thý) before a comparative. It is the instrumental or ablative case of that or thaet.

The more, the merrier"=by that more, by that merrier. That is, the measure of the increase in the number is the measure of the increase in the merriment.

(iii) Thus is the instrumental case of this, and is=in this manner.
d. Compound Adverbs are formed by adding together-
(i) Noun and Noun, as lengthways, endways.
(ii) Noun and Adjective, as —
Always.
Head-foremost.

Otherwise.
Breast-high.
Meanwhile.

Sometimes.
(iii) Preposition and Noun, as Aboveboard, outside.
(iv) Adverb and Preposition, as-
Hereafter.

Therein.

Whereupon.

PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES. 12. The Prefixes used in our language are of English, French, Latin, and Greek origin.

(i) French is only a modified Latin. Hence French prefixes fall naturally under Latin prefixes, as the one is only a form of the other.

13. English Prefixes are divided into Inseparable and Separable. Inseparable Prefixes are those that have no meaning by themselves and cannot be used apart from another word. Separable Prefixes may be used and are used as independent words.

14. The following are the most important

English Inseparable Prefixes :-
1. A (a broken-down form of 0.E. an=on), as-

Abed. Aloft (=in the lift or sky). A-building.
Aboard. Away.

Athwart (=on the cross).
2. Be (an 0.E. form of by), which has several functions :-
(i) To add an intensive force to transitive verbs, as—
Bedaub.
Beseech

Besmear.
Besprinkle.
(= beseek).

Besmirch.
(ii) To turn intransitive verbs into transitive, as—
Bemoan.
Bespeak.

Bethink.
(iii) To make verbs out of nouns or adjectives, as-
Befriend.
Beguile.
Benumb.

Betroth.
Besiege (=to take a siege or seat beside a town till it surrenders).
(iv) To combine with nouns, as-
Behalf.
Bequest.

Bypath.
Behest.
Byname.

Byword.
(v) To form part of prepositions and adverbs, as before, besides, etc.

3. For (O.E. for=Lat. per) means thoroughly, and has two functions : (i) To add an intensive meaning, as inForbid.

Forget.

Forswear.
Fordone (=ruined). Forgive. Forlorn (=utterly lost).
AT Forswear means to swear out and out, to swear to anything, hence falsely.
Compare the Latin perjurare; hence our perjure.

(ii) To give a negative meaning, as in forgo (wrongly spelled forego), to go without

4. Fore = before ; as forebode, forecast.

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5. Gain (O.E. gaegn, back, again), found in gainsay (to speak against); gainstand.

6. Mis (O.E. mis, wrong; and connected with the verb to miss),

as in

Misdeed. Mislead. Mistrust. Mistake. Caution.— When mis occurs in French words, it is a shortened form of minus, less ; as in mischief, mischance, miscount, miscreant ( = nonbeliever).

7. Th, the prefix of the third personal pronoun and its cognates, and indicating something spoken of, as inThose. That.

Thither. They.
This.
There.

Thence. The.

8. Un=not, as Unholy.

Undo.

Unbind. 9. Wan (O.E. wan, wanting; and connected with wane), which is found in

Wanton ( wantowen, Wanhope ( despair).
lacking education).

Wantrust. 10. With (a shortened form of 0.E. wither back or against) is found in Withstand. Withdraw.

Withhold.

o

AT It exists also in a latent form in the word drawing-room = withdrawing

room.

15. The following are the most important

English Separable Prefixes :1. After, which is found in

Aftergrowth. Aftermath (from mow). After-dinner. 2. All (O.E. al, quite), which is found in

Almighty. Alone (quite by one's self). Almost.
3. Forth, found in forthcoming, forward, etc.
4. Fro (a shortened form of from), in froward.
5. In appears in modern English in two forms, as :-
(i) In, in-
Income.
Insight.

Instep.
Inborn.
Inbred.

Inlay.
(ii) En or em (which is a Frenchified form), in-
Endear.
Entwine.

Embolden.
Enlighten.

Embitter.

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