37. (i) Find out, first of all, the Principal Sentence. (ii) Secondly, look for the sentences, if any, that attach

themselves to the Subject of the Principal Sen

tence. (iii) Thirdly, find those sentences, if any, that belong to

the object of the Principal Sentence, or to any

other Noun in it. (iv) Fourthly, look for the subordinate sentences that

are attached to the Predicate of the Principal Sentence.

When a subordinate sentence is long, quote only the first and last words, and place dots .... between them.

38. The following Cautions are necessary :
(i) A connective may be omitted.
In Shakespeare's “Measure for Measure,” Isabel says-

“I have a brother is condemned to die.”

Here who is omitted, and “who . . . die” is an adjectival

sentence qualifying the object brother.

(ii) Do not be guided by the part of speech that in

troduces a subordinate sentence. Thus:

(a) A relative pronoun may introduce a noun sentence, as, “I do not know who-he-is ;” or an adjectival sentence, as, “John, who-was-a-soldier, is now a gardener."

(b) An adverb may introduce a noun sentence, as, “I don't know where it has gone to;” or an adjectival sentence, as, “The spot where he lies is unknown.” In the sentence, “The reason why so few marriages are happy is because young ladies spend their time in making nets, not in making cages"—the subordinate sentence “why ... happy" is,-though introduced by an adverb,-in apposition to the noun reason, and is therefore a noun sentence.


39. Complex Sentences should be mapped out on the same

principles as Simple Sentences. Let us take a sentence from Mr Morris's “Jason”

“And in his hand he bare a mighty bow,
No man could bend of those that battle now."

This sentence may be drawn up after the following plan :-.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

battle now. (The single line indicates a preposition; the double line a conjunction or conjunctive pronoun.)

40. The larger number of subordinate sentences there are, and the farther away they stand from the principal sentence, the larger will be the space that the mapping-out will cover.

Let us take this sentence from an old Greek writer :

“Thou art about, О king ! to make war against men who wear leathern trousers, and have all their other garments of leather ; who feed not on what they like, but on what they can get from a soil that is sterile and unkindly; who do not indulge in wine, but drink water; who possess no figs, nor anything else that is good to eat.”

This would be set out in the following way :

Thou art about ... against men


(i) wear trousers
(ii) have ... leather
(iii) feed not on that


(a) they like


(iv) feed on that

(6) they can get from a soil


(82) is sterile and unkindly
(v) do not wine
(vi) drink water
(vii) possess no figs
(viii) possess not anything else


(c) is good to eat. 41. Sentences may also be pigeon-holed, or placed in markedoff spaces or columns, like the following:

" Thro' the black Tartar tents he passed, which stood
Clustering like bee-hives on the low black strand
Of Oxus, where the summer floods o'erflow
When the sun melts the snow in high Pamír."

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42. There is a kind of Continuous Analysis, which may often-not without benefit-be applied to longer passages, and especially to passages taken from the poets. For example :

“ Alas! the meanest herb that scents the gale,
The lowliest flower that blossoms in the vale
Even where it dies, at spring's sweet call renews
To second life its odours and its hues."

1. Alas! an interjection, with no syntactical relation to any word in

the sentence.
2. the meanest, attributive or enlargement to 3.
3. herb, Subject to 4.
4. renews, Predicate to 3.
5. odours and hues, Object to 4.
6. at . . . call, Extension of renews, to 4.
7. to ... life, Extension of renews, to 4.


8. the lowliest, attributive or enlargement to 9.

9. flower, Subject to 10.
10. renews, Predicate to 9.
B{11. odours and hues, Object to 10.

12. at.. call, Extension to 10.
13. to: . life, Extension to 10.

[blocks in formation]


1. The primary element—that which is the shortest formof a word is called its root. Thus tal (which means number) is the root of the words tale and tell and till (a box for money).

2. The stem is the root + some modification. Thus love ( =lov + e) is the stem of lov.

3. It is to the stem that all inflexions are added, and thus to love we add d for the past tense.

4. If to the root we add a suffix, then the word so formed is called a derivative. Thus by adding ling to dar (=dear), we make darling.

5. In general, we add English prefixes and English suffixes to English words; but this is not always the case.

Thus we have cottage, where the Latin ending age is added to the English word cot; and covetousness, where the English ending ness is added to the Latin word covetous. Such words are called hybrids.

6. When two words are put together to make one, the one word so made is called a compound.

7. The adding of prefixes or of suffixes to words, or the making one word out of two, is called word-formation.


8. Compound Nouns are formed by the addition of :

(i) Noun and Noun, asBandog ( = bond-dog).

Brimstone (=burn-stone). Bridal (= bride-ale).

Bylaw (=law for a by or town).

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