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nor ordinances for their purity, nor Sabbaths ingathering to the Lord from among the Roman

Catholics of that island. because they be holy days of an holy God.

From the time that he was liberated from When to get holiness, and to grow in holiness, is our design in sanctifying Sabbaths;

prison, in January 1844, down till January 1845, when

Dr. Kalley continued his expositions of Scripwe sanctify Sabbaths that God may “sanctify

ture, without any molestation from the Porus by his Sabbaths and “by his truth,” as our tuguese authorities, except that the process Lorr prayeth (John xvii. 17), then we do call against him in the courts of law was dragging and account the Sabbath indeed “the holy of its slow length along. These expositions were the Lord.”

numerously attended both in Funchal and in 5. We do truly count the Sabbath “ the holy St. Antonio da Serra, where the Doctor resided

during the summer months. In addition to of the Lord,” when we come out of Sabbaths, this, the Bible was pretty extensively circulated as Moses came down from the mount- with our

among the people. There is no law of Portugal faces shining; when we bring with us the prohibiting the introduction of Bibles into the

savour of Christ, his sweet ointments upon our country; any number may be passed through garments (Ps. xlv. 8); when they with whom the custom-house on paying à certain duty

levied on books. Neither is there any law we converse may take notice that we “have been with Jesus.” (Acts iv. 13.) It is sad when against circulating the Word of God, though

of course the priests, when they came to know men come out of a Sabbath just such as they what the Bible was, and saw its effects, used all came in-as vain and loose, as proud, worldly, the power of the Church to prevent the people wanton, "lovers of pleasures more than lovers from receiving or keeping it. Many copies of of God;" in a word, as fit for sin as they were the Portuguese Scriptures were therefore imbefore.

ported, and sold or given to the people, who They sanctify the Sabbath, indeed, who can

showed the greatest possible eagerness to obtain

them. Farther, to call the people's attention in truth say with the apostle, “We all, with

to the way of salvation, and to instruct them in open face beholding as in a glass,” or mirror, the knowledge of it, Dr. Kalley caused to be “the glory of the Lord, are changed into the printed several little tracts, containing a plain, same image from glory to glory, even as by simple statement of some of the leading fundathe Spirit of the Lord.” (2 Cor. iii. 18.) mental truths of the Gospel, and one of these When the Sabbath leaves its image and im- tracts he was in the practice of giving to every press upon us, in some measure, then we do patient who consulted him. By these means.

when Dr. Kalley gave up his public expositions count it and keep it holy. Surely the Sab- in February 1845, in consequence of an agree bath is the very spring upon which the holy ment with the Portuguese Government, into conversation of the whole week is turned and which, by the pressure of circumstances, he moved. And therefore it is observable that the was compelled to enter, the seed of the Word Sabbath stands, asit were, betwixt the two tables had been scattered far and wide among the —the last precept of the first table, and the people. Many were beginning to feel the power preface to the second—to show us that it is from darkness into light, were worshipping

of the truth; and some had already passed the bond of union between both tables; that, God in the Spirit, rejoicing in Christ Jesus, and without a severe sanctification of the Sabbath, had no confidence in the flesh. Perhaps about the duties of both tables will fall to the ground. twenty individuals had at this time formally Whence, in the primitive times of Christianity, and fully renounced Popery. the strict observation of the Sabbath was ac

Just at the period when Dr. Kalley was counted the principal character of a true saint. compelled to discontinue his expositions, the

Rev. William H. Hewitson arrived in Madeira. i And so it is even at this day: there are no During a short sojourn of three or four months such Christians, for exemplary holiness, as at Lisbon he had acquired such a knowledge of those who are taken notice of to make most the Portuguese language, as enabled him to be conscience of sanctifying the Sabbath.

understood by the Madeirenses. At the time of his arrival the peop were in great affliction,

by reason of their having been deprived of the TIIE NATIVE PROTESTANT CHURCH IN spiritual instruction which they had for some MADEIRA-ITS RISE, SUFFERINGS, AND time enjoyed. Mr. Hewitson knew the value OVERTHROW.

of souls, he was full of zeal for the glory of

Christ, he saw a people as sheep without a shepWe lately gave a sketch of the life of Nicolau herd, yet desiring intensely the green pastures Tolentino Vieyra, and Francisco Pires Soares, and still waters, and he gave himself at once i the first two converts from Popery in Madeira. earnestly and affectionately to the work of their They have been only the first-fruits of a large instruction. In his labours Dr. Kalley took no

THE NATIVE PROTESTANT CIIURCII IN MADEIRA.

553

part, as he felt himself bound to keep strictly in trampling on this provision of the charter. to the terms of his agreement with the Portu- From time to time several of the Bible Chrisguese Government. Mr. Hewitson acted entirely tians were imprisoned and fined; one was conon his own responsibility, taking for his warrant demned to death; several were beaten in their his Master's commandment, “Preach the Gos- houses, or on the highway, and the Government pel to every creature.” Ilis teaching was pecu- did not punish, but seemed rather to encourage, liarly adapted to the wants of these poor people, the perpetrators. and they soon were strongly attached to him. As the number of Bible Christians increased, His position became a deeply interesting, but the hatred of Popery to them and to the truth exceedingly difficult, and in some respects a waxed more intense, and was more fiercely very painful, one. On the one hand, the people manifested. About twelve months ago a comwere pressing for instruction beyond what his pany of the poor people, to the number of fifty, utinost strength, though he had been left at unable any longer to endure the sufferings to perfect freedom, could supply. On the other which they were subjected, and the terror in hand, he was suspected by the Popish authori- which they were kept, tied from the island, and ties, civil and ecclesiastical, watched, and more sought refuge in St. Kitts. than once officially interdicted; and he felt it On Sabbath the 2d of August last, a mob, no easy matter to steer a right course between encou

couraged by the conduct of the authorities, a prudent caution in his proceedings, and faith- and directly excited and headed by a priest-a fulness to the Lord Jesus and to souls. But canon of the cathedral-attacked, and at midonward he went, and the Lord was with him. night broke into the house of the Misses The people continued to steal to him in small Rutherfurd, young ladies from Scotland, in parties, and often by night. So anxious for which some of the converts had that day been instruction were they, and yet so fearful and permitted to meet for worship. The people cautious, that from a distant part of the island had been watched, and counted when going to a band of them was wont to start towards dusk, the meeting. Whilst they were assembled the 1 and reaching Funchal about midnight, they mob collected. After the meeting was over, | slept on the bare floor in an unfurnished part of when Senhor Arsenio, the gentleman who conMr. Hewitson's house, received instructions ducted it, went out with three or four others to from him in the morning, spent the day in go away, the priest thrust a crucifix in his face, his house, enjoyed another exposition towards ordered him to adore his god, called him heretic evening, and when the shadows of the night and apostate, and knocked off his hat. Ile fell, set out on their return to their distant escaped, however, without further injury; but home.

those who were in the house were intimidated, A signal blessing descended on Mr. IIewit- and asked permission to remain. They were son's instructions, A considerable number watched by the mob all day. About eleven found peace in believing on the Lord Jesus o'clock at night the mob forced their way within Christ. These became preachers of righteous- the grounds; and when Miss Rutherfurd reness to their neighbours, and thus the know- monstrated with them, they insisted on an imledge and love of the truth continued to ex- mediate entry into the house, or on her turning tend and deepen. A marked change of temper out all the Portuguese, assuring her that not and life bore witness that many were savingly one of them should escape death. On her posiconverted, and of these some had once been tively refusing this, the attack on the house bitter persecutors. Many others were reading began. During a pause of the attack," says the Bible, were under convictions of sin, and Miss Rutherfurd, “I spoke again from the were inquiring after the way of salvation. balcony, and urged the danger they were incurThey met secretly, in each other's cottages, to ring—that I would complain to the consul, and read the Scriptures, to talk together of what they would suffer. “Nao ha leis pelos Calvinistas they read, and to pray. At dead of night, - There are no laws for Calvinists. If I would parties of them assembled with Mr. Hewitson not open the door they would burn the house; for worship, and to celebrate the communion, and as they said this, they broke a window beHatred and terror were around them, but they low. Then one called out, He melhora Senwere full of love and peace. Marvellous was hora retirar-se; eu rou matalla--It is better for their hungering and thirsting for the Word-un- the lady to withdraw; I will kill her. I speakable was their joy. At one of their mid- sprung back, and an immense stone fell where night meetings Mr. Hewitson ordained elders I had been standing." and deacons over them, and the Lord seemed After having smashed the door to pieces, the to be daily adding to his Church in Madeira. ruffians entered. One poor blind man Miss

But a fearful storm has burst on that little Rutherfurd concealed beneath a bed, telling flock. By the constitutional charter of Portu- him that they had now no help but God, and gal, the citizens of that kingdom may be of that he must plead with him for protection. what religion they please, provided they respect He was in the Lord's hand, he said, and like a the religion of the State. But the priesthood little child did what he was bid. The rest and the civil authorities in Madeira combined Miss Rutherfurd and her servant put in the

kitchen, as being the most distant part of the the house, she had forgotten to take it with her, 1 house, and most likely to be the last reached by or destroy it. The Popish authorities were the mob. There the poor people betook them- thunderstruck to find that this list contained selves to prayer. The ruffians went straight to 240 names, that of these 151 were communithe room of the invalid Miss Rutherfurd, where cants, that the Lord's supper must have been, they saw a light: they demanded the Portu. frequently celebrated, and that a Presbyterian guese, and were told that they might search Protestant Church had been organized. There for them. " At last,” writes Miss Rutherfurd, is something very striking in the secrecy which “ we heard the yell as they found their prey had been preserved, when the number of the assembled in the kitchen. They seized the first communicants and converts was so great. The man in the room, threw him over the stairs, communion had been dispensed a considerable" bruised and cut his head, and his whole body number of times. The converts not daring to was mangled; but ere they had time to seize assemble all together, had met in dark moonanother, the police and soldiers came up, and less nights, in companies of thirty or forty, and, entering by the kitchen stairs' door, which the we believe, on one occasion, upwards of sixty wretches had just opened, that they might drag had come together; yet of all that their eneout their prey to be murdered in the garden, mies had remained entirely ignorant. Had it they caught them in the house in the act of been otherwise, the violence of the Papists : killing the poor man. His life was saved. would have broken out long before.

“ O how The guard took the rest of the poor creatures great is Thy goodness, which thou hast laid up under their care, seized two of the ruffians, and for them that fear thee; which thou hast i sert them off to prison.” These two prisoners wrought for them that trust in thee before the were liberated next day without any punish- sons of men! Thou shalt hide them in the ment, and the Misses Rutherfurd, one of them secret of thy presence from the pride of man;, a very great invalid, took refuge, by the advice thou shalt keep them secretly in a pavilion of the British consul, on board a British mer. from the strife of tongues.” chantman in the bay.

The list found among Mrs. Kalley's papers On the following Sabbath, the 9th of August, was put into the hands of the governor, and the mob, which had been thoroughly organized copies circulated in Funchal. It served to during the week, and was now confident of im- direct the Papists to their victims. Not that, punity, attacked Dr. Kalley's house. He had any formal legal prosecution was now instituted left it in disguise very early in the morning, by the Government against the converts, but 3 ard retired to the house of a friend. Thence, much more summary and effectual mode of diswhilst the assault on his house was going on, he posing of them was adopted-they were surwas carried down to the beach in a palanquin, rendered to the tender mercies of the lawless disguised in female attire, and got on board the agents of Popery; and, indeed, it scarcely! British West India steamer, which had just needed the list to point out who the converts come in, His boat had scarcely pushed off,

As soon as it was known that Dr. when the mob arrived at the beach in pursuit of Kalley had been compelled to leave the island, him. They had previously broken into his the great body of the native Protestants in house, the civil governor of the island, the chief terror abandoned their houses, and tied to the of the police, and the British consul, with a mountains. Their houses were forthwith pilbody of soldiers, standing by and offering no laged, they themselves were hunted by their opposition ! Not finding Dr. Kalley, as they persecutors, and, when discovered, they were confidently expected to have done, they destroy mercilessly beaten, with the avowed object of ed his medicines, and cast out into the street compelling them to return to mass.

One man and burnt his books, including a large number at least was killed outright, being beaten to of Bibles. It is worthy of remark, as throwing death on the public road, and several were all some light on the nature and origin of these but murdered. Some of the poor people beatrocious proceedings, and as indicating some. took themselves to the Desertas-small uninthing more than mere mob violence, that whilst habited rocky islands, about ten or twelve miles the printed books were destroyed, manuscripts off Maderia-and thence, it is believed, they and letters were preserved and examined were conveyed by different ships to the West ! doubtless, in the hope of finding something to Indies. Many found their way on board the criminate Dr. Kalley.

William, the vessel in which the Misses RutherAmong these manuscripts and letters there furd had taken refuge. These got off with was found a list, in Mr. Hewitson's handwrit- nothing but the clothes they wore, and their ing, of the elders, deacons, communicants, and copies of the Word of God, with which they catechumens of the little Protestant Church. never parted. Seyeral of God's children in On leaving the island in June last, Mr. Hewit- Funchal felt it to be a privilege and honour to son, not knowing what might befall him, and aid these poor people in their deep distress. judging it proper that such a record should be Contributions in money were made, and some in existence, had put it into the hands of Mrs. of the shopkeepers sent parcels of clothing. Kalley, and in the hurry and alarm of leaving The poor sufferers had grace given them to

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rejoice in their tribulations; and their Christian comfort and build them up in the faith of the temper and spirit were most striking and won blessed Jesus, their beloved minister, the Rev. derful. The wife of an English clergyman, William Hewitson bas agreed to go out to herself in considerable danger, thus writes to a Trinidad for a few months, and we trust further friend: “Miss Rutherfurd was quite invaluable and permanent provision will be made for their on board the vessel, dividing the goods, and spiritual instruction. Under the shelter of the apportioning them justly. She said it was de British power and laws they will enjoy liberty lightful to see the absence of self in the reci- of conscience, and will prove useful, we trust, pients, each appearing more anxious to tell the in various ways, to their new home. They wants of his neighbour than his own. So much have, indeed, forsaken all for Christ; and can

did the spirit of love appear to prevail among we doubt that our Lord's words will be fulfilled il

them, that the mate was heard to observe one to them, “Every one that hath forsaken houses, day, 'How these folk love one another! Persecuted or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or as they were, they never spoke against their wife, or children, or lands, for my name's sake, persecutors, only mentioning them with pity, as shall receive an hundred-fold, and shall inherit still in darkness; and Miss Rutherfurd over everlasting life?” heard them in prayer praying for their enemies, and for those who bad turned again to the 'Casas d' Idolatria.' One of the persecuting

THE SINS OF THE EAR. party went in the William to Trinidad; he had been bitter against them. When he came on

1. A careless ear, which heareth the word of God board, he was found to be in a state of the ut

and the private exhortations of his servants, as if it most destitution, and these poor people made him

heard them not. 2. A sottish, sleepy ear, that hearup from their own scanty supplies; thus indeed eth the word of God but as a confused sound, and showing forth one of the fruits of the Spirit, understandeth not, nor feeleth what is heard. 3. A by so literally, and whilst yet smarting, return

scornful ear, which despiseth the message of God, ing 'good for evil.””

and the reproofs and counsel of men, and scorneth to In a few days the William sailed for Trini- be reproved or taught. 4. An obstinate, stubborn dad with two hundred and eight of the perse.

ear, which regardeth not advice, or will not yield. 5. cuted Portuguese on board, and information

A profane and impious ear, which loveth to hear has been received of her safe arrival, and of the oaths and curses and profane and blasphemous exPortuguese having found employment, chiefly pressions. 6. A carnal ear, which loveth to hear of as labourers, among the different plantations. fleshly things, but savoureth not the words which Other vessels have since taken off many others,

savour of holiness. 7. An airy hypocritical ear, and it is understood that about five hundred, of which loveth more the music and melody, than the all ages, have sought refuge in Trinidad. The sense and spiritual elevation, of the soul to God; and Portuguese authorities in Madeira have facili- regardeth more the numbers and composure and tone, tated, rather than otherwise, the departure of than the matter of preaching, prayer, or other such the Protestants, their wish apparently being to duties ; and serveth God with the ear, when the heart crush and utterly extinguish, by any means,

is far from him. 8. A curious ear, which nauseateth Bible-truth in the island. Whether the Lord the most profitable sermons, prayers, or discourses, will permit this we know not. Perhaps the if they be not accurately ordered and expressed; and call having been given, and the Gospel having slighteth or loseth the offered benefit, for a modal been preached for a witness, those who have imperfection in the offer or instrument; and casteth rejected the call, and loved the darkness rather away all the gold because a piece or two did catch a than the light, are now to be left to the ways little rust: and perhaps quarrelleth with the style of of their own choosing, and to believe a lie. the Sacred Scriptures, as not exact or fine enough for One thing is plain, that Popery hates the light, its expectations. 9. An itching ear, which runs after and will not tolerate any examination of her novelties, and a heap of teachers, and liketh someclaims and doctrines, nor any withdrawal from thing extraordinary better than things necessary. her communion, and that to prevent these she 10. A selfish ear, which loveth to hear all that tends is the same cruel and bloody persecutor that

to the confirmation of its own conceits, and to be ever she was.

flattered or smoothed up by others, and can endure Is it not amazing, th out of one of th nothing that is cross to its opinions. 11. A proud ear, deadest and most corrupt masses of Popery to which loveth its own applause, and is much pleased be found in all the world, such a living Church with its own praises, and hateth all that speak of him should, in so short a period, have been raised ? ) with mean, undervaluing words. 12. A peevish, in“Not by might, nor by power, but by my Spirit, patient ear, which is nettled with almost all it saith the Lord.” None but those who have seen heareth; and can endure none but silken words, which what unmitigated Popery makes med, can have are oiled and sugared, and fitted by flattery or the any adequate notion of the blessed change lowest submission, to their froward minds; and is so which the truth, produced on these poor Ma- hard to be pleased, that none but grau ates ia tie deirenses. Darkness and light--death and life, art of pleasing can perform it. 13. A bold poresumare indeed fit emblems of that change. To

which will hear false teachers and deceivers .

tuous ear,

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in a proud conceit, and confidence of their own were appointed lay assessors to the Scottish ministers, abilities, to discern what is true and what is false. Henderson, Gillespie, Rutherford, and Baillie, at the 14. An ungodly ear, that can easily hear the reproach Westminster Asseinbly. The subject of this notice of holiness, and scorns at the servants and ways of was then only twenty-seven years of age, and this Christ. 15. A neutral, indifferent ear, that heareth single fuct is enough to show the prominence of his, either good or evil, without much love or hatred, position, his reputation for zeal in the cause of rebut with a dull and cold indifferency. 16. A dissem- ligion, and the extent of his influence among the bling, temporizing ear, which can complyingly hear friends of liberty and the nation. He took part in one side speak for holiness, and the other speak the business of the General Assemblies, and, looked against it, and suit itself to the company and dis at by short-sighted man, he might be decidediy course it meets with.

17. An uncharitable ear, reckoned among the valiant for the truth. which can willingly hear the censures, backbitings, Lord Maitland (such was Lauderdale's title at that slanders, revilings, that are used against others, yea, period) is known to have given regular attendance. against the best. 18. An unnatural ear, which can and to have taken a deep interest in the proceedings casily and willingly hear the dishonour of their of the Westminster Assembly. He was then zealous in parents, or other near relations, if any carnal interest the cause of religious reformation, and appeared at do but engage them against their honour. 19. A the time to be a thorough Presbyterian. The Solemn rebellious, disobedient ear, which hearkeneth not to League and Covenant was approved of by both Houses the just commands of magistrates, parents, masters, of Parliament (30th August 1613), and the members and other governors, but hearkeneth with more of the House of Commons, together with the Assempleasure to the words of seditious persons that dis- bly of Divines, subscribed that deed with all the honour them. 20. A filthy, unclean, and adulterous solemnity that religion could give to such a trans. ear,

which loveth to hear ribald speeches, and action. Alexander Henderson addressed them prior love-songs, and romances, and lascivious plays, and to their affixing their signatures, and amid all this the talk of wanton lust and dalliance. 21. A self- solemnity, Maitland was ever forward, like Ilenderson provoking ear, that hearkeneth after all that others himself, or Rutherford, or Baillie, to defend the say against them, which may kindle hatred, or disa principles, and proclaim his adherence to the cause like, or passion in them. 22. A busy, meddling ear,

for which his country was then so sted fastly cunwhich lovech to hear of other men's faults, or matters tending. In order to estimate aright the character which concern them not, and to hearken to tattlers, of Maitland, it should here be remembered that the and carry-tales, and make-bates, and to have to do Solemn League and Covenant, sworn in 1613, lad with evil reports. 23. A timorous, cowardly, un

for one of its objects the preservation of the Church believing ear, which trembleth at every threatening of Scotland from those attempts to subvert her prinof man, though in a cause which is God's, and he ciples, which her enemies were strenuously making, hath promised to justify. 24. An idle ear, which can

by forcing upon her a creed and customs which she hearken to idle, time-wasting talk, and make the sins literally abhorred. Subscription to such a document, of tattlers your own. All these ways (and more) you

in such circumstances, implied no snall measure of are in danger of sinning by the ear, and becoming resolution; and when we think of the scenes that took partakers in the sins of all whose sinful words you place in the church-yard of the Greyfriars in Edin-, hear, and of turning into sin the words of God, and burgh, when that deed was so solemnly subscribed, his servants, which are spoken for your good.

even to blood, the adhibiting of a signacure implies Baxter,

that the subscriber had caught somewhat of the national enthusiasm, and felt the magnitude of the nation's aims.

But it is not from his public life alone that we ILLUSTRATIONS OF APOSTASY. learn the sentiments and views of Maitland during

the earlier period of his history. In a letter addressed

to him from Edinburgh (1660), the ministers of reThe only other illustration of the effects of apostasy ligion appeal to him as one who had concerned himwhich we would submit in this series, is that of John, self so much in the welfare of the Church, and so the second Earl, and only Duke of Lauderdale. He proved his interest by his letters, that the friends of was born at Lethington, on the 21th day of May, in truth “were exceedingly satisfied and refreshed." It the year 1616. During the early period of his life he is probable that by that time he had begun to lay the was a zealous friend of the Covenant, and took part train, in conspiracy with Sharp, and Charles, which with the leading men of his time, in forwarding the was to explode the institution for which so much cause of pure and undefiled religion. He engaged blood had been shed and so many prayers offered. with activity in the movements of the Covenanters, But Maitland had so long appeared zealous for the and in his own person submitted to their most strict truth that those godly men had not yet begun to susand salutary laws. So prominent was the part which pect they were betrayed, and trusted him as they had he acted, and so completely was his conduct in accord- been wont to do, when, at a lower level than that of ance with the sentiments of the ministers and nobles Secretary of State, he bad sworn the Covenant, and who were then struggling for religious freedom, that vowed to uphold the cause of religion in terms of that in the year 1643, he and Sir Archibald Johnston, solemn deed. It will show the extent of his zeal, and afterwards Lord Warriston, and a martyr to the truth, the firmness of his adherence to the Covenant, to re

THE DUKE OF LAUDERDALE.

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