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Arhier * vinna bis hive to-giza Juiste te prepossessing in the smoke of its altars, imut 2 which he cachered Speech e ad - L# of the leper, and its catalogue of i rn 121 of summer.

interdicted meats. Another reader takes the za vrea do you belce-bebeta. Eixe to the Hebrews for his key, and finds for jeg! Do zu search the Sertzs himself at once in an interpreter's room, where in the

man sin them! Do you eveü ca everything is vivid, sizzicant, and spiritual. * Incas I you bring out some meaning, ce ia tha: ia w of the leper, as in a glass, he beholds au pun za eno amay some memorabe sreca his own natural face, and sees what manner of srmmertize jessce! or do you thing va man he is, and what a hateful evil in God's stus vagonly one ocious für bereizy, sight sin is. Through the smoke of altars and mi can was to ensure er pozder die skerdotal restnesis be discerns the heavenly ors. Dees the Word of God dwež h Priest ; and the forbidden meats carry in mai -12 in the fits of a reszess him forward to Jopra, and remind him of that wir. r je boostess stude of a scă bile wall of partition which Peter was the vam. ir ne vie ct od are er essa in overleap. Or, an outside reader takes up iu irtinuins, roasured truths road per se seng of Solomon, and is greatly captivated Ja.vara mer med pee, and give you meet with the Eastern ziow and gorgeous imagery of * vien ir vr JTS Roc ot !

these sacred idyls; but a spiritually-minded 4 m.cat we are far bitire is a reader sees at once that a greater than Solomon Gure mi 123 cme, A Larned and use it is here. On iss aromotie hiis he recognises the Lumina so she Episje to the licorers bearcal sceps of his saviour, and in its language

LE CHE IL 2102 c Tin Posrs' Wedzer ctiair condescension he bears the voice of his tort icar a Ezedrars, és izat koir and own Beiered. In the depths of itsrose and its lily, Bre, Wa Geeze, le poster sech reader tirds a fountain sealed" of sacred Sury-* 25. ET * ser reales are ampuiak neuning a weishut up or heareniysweetness.

? ierjee's secs exposita a of the la propertiea as we cultivate a minute and sur 8. but are at only the mere luvias sexuaiataree with the Word of God. ularni so nare teea chus langer var talih o be true, and our re igion will be Lucent me ot ie cescurestuvers are send and rubase. The bee, which is gatherLut nor, mund, sad socze of the least fra g srech and sweetness from the blossom, miem uns of scripcare are not the last teeds zo argument to persuade it that honey is ev: sime save a tacit prejudice hidden in the cells of towers. And the man wh:15 e Brex of Jcs. They feel as if it who is cuir gach cirz eomfort and support, **** funeral enisode in the Bible, and I wok sinetication ard spiritual rigour, from the 4*720 IE has it dust and askies were striskied Wor, neds no reasonings to convince him that 13. fareAmennt these Bibie-cua-, heurenr wisdom is contained in the Scriptures 1.477 in ans was one who dwel: all his days on 1 of truth; and such a man will not be easily 14, 21 strand its sombre-looking text full of beguiled of his stedfastness, whatever deceivers Borsa inscretion and evangelic comfort. In enter into the world. When near her death, un quarse he has left the product of his a singularly elear-thinking and pious student of panna ni; and every book in the Bible would the Bible wrote to a friend the following result wa shase ite Caryi, if only the world could of her own experience : " You may remember

my telling you that some years ago I declined Then, aziti, there are certain plants which greatly, almost entirely (inwardly), from the 155; me efort to reach their penetralia, wars of God, and in my breast was an Infidel-imate Espançle scores excecdingly requite a disbeliever in the truths of the Bible. When the unb There are such books in Scripture: the Lord brought me out of that dreadful state, batine, zed serum.ate flowers in the garden of and established my faith in his Word, I deterhouse withon, which need dexterity and mined to take that Word alone for my guide. Grafeuse to make a their meaning. A care. I read nothing else for between three and four loss sanat might fancy that the trace of sweet months, and the Lord helped me to pray over Framme on the tratta edge was all the honey there; every word that I read. At that time, and int the tme investigator knows better, and from that reading, all my religious opinions through the unreluctant opening pushes on to were formed, and I have not changed one of tra l'hi asratrusia within. A careless reader them since.** As the outside of Letiscus, and sees

* Semoir of Vary lane Graham.

THE REFORMERS BEFORE THE REFORMATION.

3

who had parted with everything for his supTHE REFORMERS BEFORE THE REFOR-port»in the course of his journey, save a copy MATION.

of the New Testament in Syriac, which he had

carefully carried from the land of his captiTHE PAULICIANS.

vity, at length reached an obscure town called

Mananalis, in the neighbourhood of Samosata, BY TUE REV. THOMAS MʻCRIE, EDINBURGH.

and begged for lodging at the house of one " When examining the history of the eleventh named Constantine. This person, it would century," says Beausobre, an eminent ecclesias- appear, belonged to a colony which was protical historian of the last century, “I met with the scribed under the odious name of Manicheans; bloody execution of thirteen canons of Orleans, ---a sect which arose very early in the Church, who were esteemed 'the noblest, the wisest, and and was chiefly distinguished by holding the the most virtuous of all the clergy of that city.' existence of two divinities, or supreme prinThese men were burnt under the pretext of ciples, a good and a bad—the former of whom being Manicheans. Prosecuting my researches was the creator of all that was spiritual and into this new species of Manicheans, I dis- good; the latter, the creator of matter and all covered that they came from Italy; that those evil. The Church of Rome has branded all who of Italy had come from Dalmatia; those of opposed her pretensions and superstitions in Dalmatia from Bulgaria ; those of Bulgaria these early ages with the epithet of Manicheans, from Thrace; and those of Thrace from Syria much in the same spirit as those who have and Armenia. Thus it appears,” he adds," that separated from corrupt Churches with us have our Manicheans of France, Germany, and Italy, been stigmatized by such names as Puritans are neither more nor less than a branch of and Methodists. Be this as it may, the errors those wbo were called PAULICIANS. Further of Constantine's creed do not seem to have inquiries into the tenets of these people have entirely hardened his heart or blinded his unconvinced me that the accounts which we have derstanding. He received the poor deacon generally received of them are little better than into his house, and hospitably entertained him a tissue of fabrications.”*

for several days. On his departure, the grateIt must be curious to examine the history of ful captive made his kind host a present of his a Church so very ancient, and which has passed highly-prized Syriac Testament, which was in through so many transmigrations. It must be two volumes--the one containing the four Gosinteresting to trace the apostolic connection pels, and the other the fourteen Epistles of between the Churches of Italy, the immediate Paul. To the study of these sacred books, precursors of the Reformed Church, and the hitherto locked up from him, Constantine diliPaulicians, who arose in the seventh century. gently applied himself; and the simple reading And the task deepens in interest when we find of the Word of God, without note or comment, reason to believe that this much maligned people led to such a revolution in his sentiments carried with them in all their wanderings from that he publicly burned all his Manichean east to west, from the plains of Armenia to the books, and became a zealous preacher of the Alps of Europe, the vital stream of evangelical Gospel. Numerous proselytes gathered around truth. It might be presumed, indeed, that the him; many Catholics were converted by him; principles which kept such masses together, he preached with success in the regions of which survived whole centuries of bloody per- Pontus and Cappadocia; and with the aid of secution, and which flourished in soils so widely fellow-labourers who came to his assistance, a different, must have been sounder at heart, large Church was speedily instituted, the memand more tenacious of life, than the vagaries bers of which, in token of their veneration for of an heretical imagination. And, in point of the writings of Paul, assumed or received the fact, the lights of history which are only begin- name of Paulicians.* Constantine himself, ning to dawn on the monastic records of the from the same innocent ambition to revive the dark ages, have already discovered enough to memory of the first ages of Christianity, took convince us of the truth of Beausobre's state the name of Paul's friend-Sylvanus; while ment, so far as the Paulicians are concerned, some of the leading pastors with whom he was that they are "little better than a tissue of associated were named after Titus, Timothy, fabrications." It is but a slight sketch that and Tychicus; and six of their principal concan be here attempted of this interesting, but gregations representeủ the Churches to which little known and much neglected people. Paul had addressed his Epistles.

About the middle of the seventh century, a The leading tenets of the Paulicians were Christian deacon, who had escaped from cap- characterized by the purity and simplicity | tivity in Syria, was returning homewards that might be expected from an association through Armenia. The exhausted traveller, which sprung from the fresh and immaculate • Letter of Mr Beausobre to Mr de la Motte. (Bibl. de

seed of the Word. Discarding the Gnosticism of l'Europe, vii., 145.) Beauscbre is the author of a learned the school in which they had been educated, and work on Manicheism, and had prepared a history of the Paulicians, which he did not like to publish, and which, un “The name of Paulicians is derived by their enemies fortunately for the interests of historical truth. has never from some unknown teacher, but I am confident that ret been given to the public. Memoires sur la Vie., &c., de they gloried in their affinity to the Apostle of the Gentiles.' Beausobre ; Hist. Critique de Manichee, vol. il.)

(Gibbon's Decline and Fall, x., 169.)

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deriving their kuowi?ig immigrer , tuvugi jearrei Iac, tha top disovbe et morir, imperfectiy, from the rouni e' impru_JUL, Loe toe Tu SYSam o Juan COCESIS IL Fa nit creed was distinguisiec ratner is its fra**on. 61111 pui 1 sar corvino. Tur 41 froin error, than by in- fuines ei rei

1. istas ter

ints to "TODOG 0: IT. for a Protestant to recogne L'ilisi o tuen ina: 11alicu u D' mor errors, given by Pioclin

inur ven. (L. frt m. tie once their histurias- and tasty! aeeuntr.. BOTIM 1 eetamm 1

turer in of the leading points of tax rellut DiamDE 101 I. t# TILITOITTEE U U formation, i gainet ti raat Istuva juu ui tih Gian LoreTecnol V. of discipline and due ribe," ray. GIDDUL, WI 10 Msich eher onanert Ter. COBIT and has been singularis lavouraude u tih tauis. La bio aterrar

îi cerTDI TIITLI cians, the mont, \x113 p., bacausi 1) Wer of ceremoniec mac mar ctie kuS hardly acimowituveni in stabila.

cm * Caurui. maT 1 TUCE as thoroughis guarueri iy mavi aut aversion 'I went1-b-ta. Test: ai ir tatu ami ter as by the silence of stuu

vert Car:11 Tartu 1: II U5 **gelists. The wjects Wales

1.5, tie ti TINTI.VE C: iler tant formed by the Blue of cert, pharee 24*** TIFOC SIC L* eur, in the eyes of the Fäuschil in the pro 4114* bent of buidare.

ComRL Lice and naked colours. An 112 m * 10. jermarch:1:. CTILK (i smit the hands was ihe culino NOTALO IOT - sikre au scate to. Smin. = tal artist, to w lust silt 1. vel mic canvass must be inuwe jo: tien Theri 0

emutat" vaT. T-larec 0216 u tu mus value. The mirariuous relie wert i La ci circit of the discu, a ti pri bones and audiee; the true visina IN PATLOL, CIIIL tim ti SIM pitie of sound or rutilu tm.*; Le Lay 220 heretici, itider u uenit blood of Christ, a loaf of preau ant & cup of ilk OnEE, bu: insteal an than r wine, the gifts of nature and t9+ FILONS Gooid pastor, funs that simultaneous The

The muner of God reas Leaded from C e Lark. 0:24 * ter nunit ITber celesua honours and immaculate virginis; (741, called Justus, DK. FTE shout st. ci and the saints and angels were no longer som the fame of Jucas, thou. I tilf L :3 licited to exercise the laborions ofiice of me o ibor Popish historias, Titin 2014 Trr:SS diutiun in heaven, and mainty upon ca-i... of the youžiful Dariu ir satis S. LIS lu ide practice, or at itast in the theory of who Inis SUD" at the beaco Camu mi DA Barainents de l'indunts were inclined to hin on the fpot. And the 11 :: iritsi abundo all ile ol.105 is ot' worshir; and the pious varius, aa he lovec u DIN Untit ulilor cu juclucla, ili ihon yn ment. The was which must have recallel ti ISIS bag is in and communion ni then tai hiul."* 1 the memory of the is: mine ne

rulistic ullo jasis that it was the studr of le sourut ibrerie. Dui, a 1:1 31710etbe !!li, ou Irudite und bau tendency to diani remblance the deart of the ILT EN

Pharisis, whilo laif billion to im so much of it is the conversion de **** the 1.1!. I wisit huisnulihat time, and we Söruck vŁ the constaart dised IT Srl. Call tanuisderelated and in cant in the Tarus and the devotedniss Dresho

desfile of that it war, wird hiermjet si tur the resolvrü rather to die than racun Sarho tunin," of ulith their that hullee luile accuse nad acted the part of San. of TESS :rzed

hen. Attlar bile talut, there ai clients are to Constantinople un ultered IEL. ,' cumpati tu dhibward se hui the landsins himsef t; in is own house, be irrad : ree

** Id liv uuririleb w lid 1119, ad of Tears in a close study of the Sirs and Cibincarnation and libisid. And whet: wiher beciks: after which, without arany we and that they djali iviuc Injur as Lis friends, he returned to the ceci Cone Orly Salud Liba į lai 10e, and! stuntine's martyrdom, irade a prison of his yester for i! Lielbest we wille iud in the Gospel which he bad cose sorcht

Ville mukabelky! 1 ivanor, and was accepted by the Pascans Review of at they ovuli uut te MU 11 tie! as the successor of the man whom te bd put tiisid error as times bea 21.*T* IX sind iu lat, met the assumed name of Titus. 102. list 1. ja LT The secession of Simea to the razis of the 170, x* the Britoring if the Old I *** Hacias was the sigz.al for kindling anew the

;

"'"'** W prentisa. Very soon, through the 14:43 i nane prize; led

air, 1 aires of the detestable Justus, 1.44**, 1956ri, umes, thereinbarted in:o the hands of their eneof us during ? Lvastus **, we only turned them all. pastor and

Dio; ari the opent, clecting them to. folosit, L; we enormous funeral-pile. One

* 1*** ** sukrct treated at greater 7.9946. y. 51, Wels. ross, wie mit was! Fatetilantes, de.; Vaughan's Life

* Nimes Hist of the church, vol. 8. Te roi A.116, de

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و به الفنانة مها : نه می رود و ره وه ر و مه ۲

THE REFORMERS BEFORE THE REFORMATION.

3

who had parted with everything for his supTHE REFORMERS BEFORE THE REFOR- port in the course of his journey, save a copy MATION.

of the New Testament in Syriac, which he had

carefully carried from the land of his captiTHE PAULICIANS.

vity, at length reached an obscure town called

Mananalis, in the neighbourhood of Samosata, BY THE REV. THOMAS MʻCRIE, EDINBURGH.

and begged for lodging at the house of one * Wues examining the history of the eleventh named Constantine. This person, it would century,” says Beausobre, an eminent ecclesias- appear, belonged to a colony which was protical historian of the last century," I met with the scribed under the odious name of Manicheans; bloody execution of thirteen canons of Orleans, --a sect which arose very early in the Church, who were esteemed the noblest, the wisest, and and was chiefly distinguished by holding the the most virtuous of all the clergy of that city.' existence of two divinities, or supreme prinThese men were burnt under the pretext of ciples, a good and a bad--the former of whom being Manicheans. Prosecuting my researches was the creator of all that was spiritual and into this new species of Manicheans, I dis- good; the latter, the creator of matter and all covered that they came from Italy; that those evil. The Church of Rome has branded all who of Italy had come from Dalmatia; those of opposed her pretensious and superstitions in Dalmatia from Bulgaria ; those of Bulgaria these early ages with the epithet of Manicheans, from Thrace; and those of Thrace from Syria much in the same spirit as those who have and Armenia. Thus it appears," he adds," that separated from corrupt Churches with us have our Manicheans of France, Germany, and Italy, been stigmatized by such names as Puritans are neither more nor less than a branch of and Methodists. Be this as it may, the errors those who were called PauLICIANS. Further of Constantine's creed do not seem to have inquiries into the tenets of these people have entirely hardened his heart or blinded his unconvinced me that the accounts which we have derstanding. He received the poor deacon generally received of them are little better than into his house, and hospitably entertained him a tissue of fabrications."*

for several days. On his departure, the grateIt must be curious to examine the history of ful captive made his kind host a present of his a Church so very ancient, and which has passed highly-prized Syriac Testament, which was in through so many transmigrations. It must be two volumes—the one containing the four Gos. interesting to trace the apostolic connection pels, and the other the fourteen Epistles of between the Churches of Italy, the immediate Paul. To the study of these sacred books, precursors of the Reformed Church, and the hitherto locked up from him, Constantine diliPaulicians, who arose in the seventh century, gently applied himself; and the simple reading And the task deepens in interest when we find of the Word of God, without note or comment, reason to believe that this much maligned people led to such a revolution in his sentiments carried with them in all their wanderings from that he publicly burned all his Manichean east to west, from the plains of Armenia to the books, and became a zealous preacher of the Alps of Europe, the vital stream of evangelical Gospel. Numerous proselytes gathered around truth. It might be presumed, indeed, that the him; many Catholics were converted by him; principles which kept such masses together, he preached with success in the regions of which survived whole centuries of bloody per- Pontus and Cappadocia; and with the aid of secution, and which flourished in soils so widely fellow-labourers who came to his assistance, a different, must have been sounder at beart, large Church was speedily instituted, the memand more tenacious of life, than the vagaries bers of which, in token of their veneration for of an heretical imagination. And, in point of the writings of Paul, assumed or received the fact, the lights of history which are only begin- name of Paulicians.* Constantine himself, ning to dawn on the monastic records of the from the same innocent ambition to revive the dark ages, have already discovered enough to memory of the first ages of Christianity, took convince us of the truth of Beausobre's state- the name of Paul's friend-Sylvanus; while ment, so far as the Paulicians are concerned, some of the leading pastors with whom he was

that they are "little better than a tissue of associated were named after Titus, Timothy, | fabrications." It is but a slighit sketch that and Tychicus; and six of their principal con

can be here attempted of this interesting, but | gregations represented the Churches to which little known and much neglected people. Paul had addressed liis Epistles.

About the middle of the seventh century, a The leading tenets of the Paulicians were Christian deacon, who had escaped from cap- characterized by the purity and simplicity tivity in Syria, was returning homewards that might be expected from an association through Armenia. The exhausted traveller, which sprung from the fresh and immaculate

• Letter of Mr Beausobre to Mr de la Motte. (Bibl. de seed of the Word. Discarding the Gnosticism of l'Europe, vii., 145.) Beausobre is the author of a learned the school in which they had been educated, and work on Manicheism, and had prepared a history of the Paulicians, which he did not live to publish, and which, un “The name of Paulicians is derived by their enemies fortunately for the interests of historical truth. has never from some unknown teacher; but I ain' contident that ve been given to the public. Memoires sur la Vie., dec., de they gloried in their affinity to the Apostle of the Genti es." Beiusobre ; Hist. Critique de Manichee, vol. ii.)

(Gibbon's Decline and Fall, 8., 169.)

deriving their knowledge immediately, though ledged fact, that they disowned, with horror, imperfectly, from the Fount of Inspiration, their the whole system of Manicheism; and we may creed was distinguished rather by its freedom simply state it as our conviction, without enfrom error, than by its fulness of truth. It is easy tering here into the grounds on which it rests, for a Protestant to recognise in the list of their that the Paulicians did no more than insist on errors, given by Phocius and Peter Siculus, at their being judged by the writings of the New once their historians and their accusers, some Testament, to which they owed their first of the leading points of the Protest of the Re- illumination in the truth, in preference to those formation. “ Against the gradual innovations of the Old, and more especially the Levitical law, of discipline and doctrine,” says Gibbon, who to which their opponents were constantly in the has been singularly favourable to the Pauli. habit of appealing, and to an attempted revival cians, the more, perhaps, because they were of the ceremonies of which many of the abuses hardly acknowledged as Christians,“ they were of the Church may be traced.* as thoroughly guarded by habit and aversion Twenty-seven years did the faithful and fer. as by the silence of St Paul and the evan vent Constantine-Sylvanus labour in his vocagelists. The objects wliich had been trans- tion, when the number of his followers having formed by the magic of superstition, appeared at length roused the jealousy of the emperor, a in the eyes of the Paulicians in their genuine body of soldiers, under the cominand of one and naked colours. An image made without Simeon, was despatched, with orders to smite the hands was the common workmanship of a mor shepherd and scatter the flock. Simeon, in tal artist, to whose skill alone the wood and order to execute his commission in the most canvass must be indebted for their merit or emphatic way, placed Constantine in the mids: value. The miraculous relics were a heap of of a circle of his disciples, and, as the price of bones and ashes; the true vivifying cross was a their pardon, commanded them to stone their piece of sound or rotten timber; the body and heretical leader to death. The Paulicians lifted blood of Christ, a loaf of bread and a cup of the stones, but instead of aiming them at their wine, the gifts of nature and the syinbols of devoted pastor, flung them simultaneously begrace. The mother of God was degraded from hind their backs. One of their number, howher celestial honours and immaculate virginity; ever, called Justus, emulous, we should say, of and the saints and angels were no longer so the fame of Judas, though, in the estimation licited to exercise the laborious office of me of the Popish historians, rivalling the prowess diation in heaven, and ministry upon carth. of the youthful David in slaying Goliath, aimed In the practice, or at least in the theory of the his stone at the head of Constantine, and killed sacraments, the Paulicians were inclined to liim on the spot. And thus fell the brave and abolish all visible objects of worship; and the pious Sylvanus, as he loved to call himself, in a words of the Gospel were, in their judgment, the way which must have recalled to his own mind baptism and communion of the faithful.”* It the memory of the first martyr of the age which is sufficiently plain that it was the study of he sought to revive. But, as if to complete the Inspired Truth, and not any tendency to Mani- resemblance, the death of the martyr was folcheisin, which taught them to spurn so much of lowed by the conversion of the persecutor. the fiction and mummery of their time; and we Struck with the constancy displayed by Sylcan easily understand what is meant by that varus, and the devotedness of his followers, who

despite of the cross,” and “ disrespect for the resolved rather to die than recant, Simeon, who Virgin,” of which their enemies bitterly accuse had acted the part of Saul of Tarsus, returned them. At the same time, these accusers are to Constantinople an altered man.

Shutting compelled to acknowledge that the Paulicians himself up in his own house, he devoted three “held the doctrines of the Trinity, and years to a close study of the Scriptures, and Christ's incarnation and Godhead.”+ And when other books; after which, without apprizing any we add, that they appealed to the Scriptures as of his friends, he returned to the place of Couthe only standard of faith and practice, and stantine's martyrdom, inade a profession of his boldly contended for the unlimited use of the faith in the Gospel which he had once sought Sacred Oracles, we have surely stated enouglı to to destroy, and was accepted by the Paulicians show that they could not be so deeply infected as the successor of the man whom he had put with error as has been generally supposed to death, under the assumed name of Titus. The most serious charge against them is, that The accession of Simeon to the ranks of the they rejected the Scriptures of the Old Testa- Paulicians was the signal for kindling anew the ment; but this can be easily explained. That fires of persecution. Very soon, through the it could not be on the same principle which led agency, it appears, of the detestable Justus, the Manicheans to reject the ancient Scriptures, they were betrayed into the hands of their enenamely, on its characteristic hypothesis that they mies; and the emperor, collecting them to were the revelations of the devil

, or the author gether, devoutly burned them all, pastor and of matter, is very obvious from the acknow- people, upon one enormous funeral-pile. One * Decline and Fall, x., 173.

* Those who wish to see this subject treated at greater † Petr. Sic. Hist., p.31; Faber's Vallenses, p. 37; Weis length, may cor sult Milner's Hist. of the Church, vol.ii. man, Intr. Hist. Eccl., 701, where the accoust of Siculus is p. 493, &c.; Faber's Vallenses, p. 31, &c.; Vaughan's Life

of Wyciiffe, vol. i., p. 116, &c.

given enure,

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