such horrible self-abasement in it, that I do hope,2 that every youth, who shall read this, will hold in detestation3 the reptiles who make use of it. In all other countries, the lowest individual can put 4 a petition into the hands of the chief magistrate, be he 5 king or emperor : let us hope, that the time will yet come when 6 Englishmen will be able to do the same.? In the meantime 8 I beg you to despise these worse 9 than pagan parasites.

Perseverance is a prime quality in every pursuit. Yours is, too, the time of life to acquire 10 this inestimable habit. Men fail much oftener from want 11 of perseverance than from want of talent and of good disposition : as 12 the race was not to the hare but to the tortoise ; so the meed of success in study is not to 13 him 14 who is in haste, 15 but to him who proceeds with a steady and even 16 step. It is

1 self-abasement,' abaissement page 6, note 3. Aussi bien, thus (or, humiliation) volontaire.--'in used, without que, serves to acit;' see page 22, note 1

count in several ways for a pre44, note : 2 j'espère bien ;-see page 40, note ceding proposition. It corresponds, 5. We have more ways than one, according to the case, to 'as,' 'for however, according to the case, of indeed, the more so as,' 'after all,' rendering the emphasis of 'do,' “besides,' 'too,' as used here in thus used in English ; with an impe- the text, &c. It here accounts, rative we should use donc, or je vous though somewhat indirectly, for prie (or, en prie): ex., goatez donc 'perseverance' being thus partide ce pâté (do taste this pie); &c. cularly recommended to young See page 77, note 13.

people. It may also be observed 3 n'auront que de l'exécration that this expression often takes pour ;-détestation is hardly used elegantly after it the interrogative in French, except as a religious form, as well as those mentioned term.

page 32, note 1? 4 remettre. 5 qu'il soit. * il Simply, faute.

6 espérons néanmoinsor, toute- 12 'as, de même que ;,' fois, &c.qu'un temps viendra or de même, or, ainsi. --'the race was (or, que), 7 en faire autant. not to,' le prix de la course fut

8 En attendant ; or, Jusque-. remporté, non par.

9 de faire moins de cas encore de 13 revient, non d. ces êtres-(être is often so used, 14 'him, here, celui. When the in French, as a term of contempt, personal pronouns 'he,' she,' &c., and, sometimes also, as an expres- are the antecedents of a relative sion of anger). We might also pronoun, they are expressed, not translate by, de mettre ces étres-ld by il, elle, &c., but by celui, celle, au-dessous de ; leaving out 'than.' &c.

15 se presse. 20 Aussi bien est-ce à votre âge que 16 ferme (or, sûr) et égal (or, unis'acquiert. See page 8, note 6, and forme régulier),

not to a want 1 of taste or of desire or of disposition to learn ? that we have to 3 ascribe the rareness of good scholars, so much as to the want of patient perseverance.4

William COBBETT.


WHEN I write to you, I foresee a long letter, and ought5 to beg your patience beforehand ; for if it prove 6 the longest, it will be of course the worst ? I have troubled you with. Yet to express my gratitude at large for your obliging letter is not more my duty than my interest; 9 as some people will 10 abundantly thank you 11 for one piece of

1 un manque; or, un défaut. note 7, and in the LA FONTAINE,

? du désir d'apprendre ou de page 93, note 8. dispositions. The definite article 5 See page 30, note 15. is here used before désir, because 6 car si cette lettre-ci (or, la pré. this poun is taken in a particular sente lettremor, substantively, la definite sense. Observe, besides, présente) se trouve être. that, were the word-for-word trans- ? 'the worst,'-'letter' underlation of this English phrase strictly stood ; see page 72, note 13. good French, yet it would require 8 See page 1, note 8.-'to trouble,' some change in the construction- here, importuner. See, besides, supposing this could be managed page 13, notes: but we may use instead of having to use another here the compound of the future, turn altogether, -as désir requires as well. the preposition de after it, and 9 Toutefois, il n'est pas moins de disposition the preposition d. This mon intérêt que de mon devoir de case is connected with the one vous exprimer au long (or, tout au cominented upon at page 12, note long) ma reconnaissance de votre 3; and the rule given there is lettre obligeante (or, de votre bonne applicable to substantives, and also lettre). to adjectives, as well as to verbs. 10 some people,' certaines gens ; 3 qu'il nous faut.

see page 87, note 16. The substan4 patient perseverance ;' see tive gens requires adjectives, &c., page 25, note 16.-Construct this preceding it to be feminine, and sentence so, in French (page 22, those following masculine. This note 7): It is not so much to a rule has somewhat complicated want of taste .. &c., as to the want exceptions. See the LĀ FONof ... &c., that we have ... TAINE, p. 52, note 6, and p. 133, scholars.'-On this subject, the note 8. - will ;' see p. 45, note 4. French have a proverb which runs 11 nous, here, will not be ambithus, “La trop grande hâte est guous ; vous would be so.'to thank cause du retardement." See also abundantly,' remercier tant et plus : those already mentioned, page 6, or, faire mille remerciments.

kindness, 1 to put you in mind of? bestowing another. The more favourable you are to me, the more distinctly I see my faults.3 Spots and blemishes, you know, are never so plainly discovered as in the brightest sunshine.4 Thus I am fortified by those 5 commendations which were designed to encourage me : for praise to a young wit is like 6 rain to a tender flower; if it be moderately bestowed, it cheers and revives ;7 but if too lavishly,8 overcharges 9 and depresses him. Most men in years, as they are general discouragers of youth, 10 are like old trees, that, being past bearing themselves, 11 will suffer no young plants to flourish beneath them, 12 but, as if it were not enough to have outdone all your coevals in wit, 13 you will excel them in goodnature too. As for my green essays, 14 if you find any pleasure in them, 15 it must be such as a man 16 naturally takes in observing the first shoots and 17 buddings of a tree which he has raised himself; and it is impossible they should be

2nd, the nominath, the regimen 01

Cor. des gens agesmesse, comme ils

i 'for,' de, here, as at note 9 of talent (or, un jeune auteur qui the preceding page.—'a piece of promet--or, un bel-esprit en herbem kindness ;' simply, une bonté (or, or, simply, un jeune homme d'intelune faveur), just as we say une ligence) ce qu'est. The word belimprudence (an act of imprudence), esprit, however, is now generally &c. &c.

taken in a bad sense. 2 pour nous faire songer d.

7 A personal pronoun, governed 3 No article is used," in French, by several verbs, must not only be with plus, or, moins, repeated. placed before the first, in French, Besides, in such a case, the follow- but be repeated before each of ing is the order usually observed in them. the words :-st plus, or moins; 8 See page 29, note 9. 2nd, the nominative of the verb; 9 See page 23, note 9. 3rd, the verb; 4th, the regimen of 10 La plupart des hommes d'age the verb (whether an adjective or a (or, des gens agés), décourageant substantive); the rest as in Eng- (or, rebutant) la jeunesse, comme ils lish (see p. 49, note 5, and p. 87, le font généralement. note 15). Bear in mind, too, that 11 ayant eux-mêmes cessé de porter 'to me'must, according to another des fruits ; or, ne portant plus de rule, precede the verb, in French: fruits eux-mêmes. and, as to the proper place of the 12 See page 24, note 19. adverb, when any, as here, see 13 See page 22, notes 1 and 7. page 19, note 5.-my faults ;' par 14 premiers essais ; or, essais de je pèche, so as to avoid a repe- novice. here is only on e word

15 in them;' y, here, before the in French, for "fault' and 'blem- verb. ish,' in this sense.

16 ce (see p. 72, note 13) doit être 4 en plein soleil.

un plaisir du genre de celui qu'on. 5 les mêmes.

17 Repeat the article and nu. est à un jeune écrivain de meral.

esteemed any otherwise 1 than as we value fruits for being early, which 2 nevertheless are the most insipid, and the worst of the year. In a word, I hate compliment, which is, at best, but the smoke of friendship. I neither write nor converse with you to gain your praise, but your affection. Be so much my friend as 4 to appear my enemy, and to tell me my faults, if not as 5 a young man, at least as an inexperienced writer.

THE DEATH OF BAYARD. (A.D. 1524.) At the beginning of the charge, Bonnivet, while exerting himself with much 6 valour, was wounded so dangerously, as obliged him to quit the field ;7 and the conduct of the rear was committed to the Chevalier Bayard, who, though so much a stranger to the arts of a court 8 that he never rose to the chief command, was always called, in times of real danger, to the posts of greatest difficulty and importance. He put himself at the head of the men at arms, 9 and animating them by his presence and example to sustain the whole shock of the enemy's troops, 10 he gained time for the rest of his countrymen to make good their retreat.11 But in this service 12 he received a wound which he immediately perceived to be mortal, 13 and being unable 1 Simply, autrement.

12 cette action. 2 d cause de leur précocité, des 13 perceived,' sentit.-See page fruits qui; see p. 14, note 5.- 7, noto 2.—The student is particu'nevertheless,' &c. ; see p. 34, n. 9. larly cautioned against using a 3 tout au plus.

construction which he will occa4 óso much'...'as,' assez .... sionally find even in good authors, pour,—the same turn as the one but which is contrary to the logical mentioned at page 86, note 3). principles of language, and to the 5 voyant en moi sinon.

established rules of general gram6 qui se comporta avec la plus mar. (See, among others, Messrs. grande.

Noël and Chapsal's Grammar, rule 7 champ de bataille. See page 428.) We find in Fénelon's Télé. 24, note 19, and leave out 'and. maque :-..“l'étranger que le roi

so much ... &c. ;' simply, si faisait chercher, et qu'on disait qui peu courtisan.

était venu avec Narbal” (page 54, 9 gendarmes, or, hommes d'armes. edition Bell and Daldy, with notes 10 Simply, des ennemis.

by C.-J. Delille). Fénelon should 11 pour couvrir la retraite du reste have said, .... qu'on disait être de l'armée.


to continue any longer on horseback, he ordered one of his attendants to place him under 2 a tree, with his 3 face towards the enemy; then fixing his eyes on the guard of his sword, which he held up instead of a cross,4 he addressed his prayers to God, and in this posture, which became his character both as a soldier and as a Christian,5 he calmly waited the approach of death. Bourbon, who led the foremost? of the enemy's troops, found him in this situation, and expressed regret and pity at the sight. “Pity not me,” cried the high-spirited 10 chevalier, “ I die as a man of honour ought, 11 in the discharge of 12 my duty : they indeed are objects of pity, who fight against their king, their country, and their oath.”13 The Marquis de Pescara, passing soon after, manifested his admiration of Bayard's virtues, as well as his sorrow for his fate, with the generosity of a gallant enemy; and finding that he could not be removed with safety from that spot, ordered a tent to be pitched 14 there, and appointed proper persons to

I et n'ayant plus la force de se they must be joined in French, and soutenir sur son cheval.

the second part of the sentence is 2 de l'appuyer contre.-'attend- expressed the first. Construct, ants; ' simply, gens, here.

therefore, here, they who fight 3 Leave out with;' and see page against ... , are indeed objects of 26, note 12

pity,'-ceux qui (page 88, note 14) 4 qu'il tint élevée (or, qu'il tint :.. &c., sont ... &c. Yet, these en l'air) en guise de crucifix. pronouns can be separated, as in 5 See page 21, note 4

English, by adding the particle to 6 Simply, la mort.

celui, celle, &c. We might there7 la tête.

fore also say, with the English con8 troupes ennemies (adjective). struction, ceux-sont .... &c.,

y le trouvant ..., lui témoigna; qui..., &c. But, after all, the leave out at the sight :' ' situ- translation here will gain in eleation, just above, is enough for gance by our saying, simply, il the sense, after our change of con- faut plaindre ceux qui. Observe, struction.

however, that sometimes we use il, 10 ce brave.

elle, &c., together with celui, celle, 11 Either leave out 'ought,' in &c., for the sake of emphasis, and the translation, or supply the with the following construction :ellipsis, viz. 'ought to do,' and “Il est homme de lettres aussi, see, then, page 5, note 8, and page celui que le feu de son imagination 6, note 3. Use the pres. ind. of porte sans cesse vers des sujets devoir.

12 en faisant nouveaux." - SAINTE-BEUVE. 13 When in an English sentence "country,' that is, here, 'native the pronouns 'he,' she,' 'it, or country,' patrie. • they,' are separated from the re- 14 'to pitch,' dresser. See page lative pronouns, who,' or 'which,' 9, note 6."

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