came after day, and still he kept his place, do what I would;2 till at length I observed that, when a question was asked him, he always fumbled with his fingers at4 a particular button in the lower part of his waistcoat. To remove it, therefore, became expedient in my eyes; and in an evil moment it was removed with a knife. Great was my anxiety to know the success of my measure; and it succeeded too well. When the boy was again questioned, his fingers sought again for the button, but it was not to be found. In his distress he looked down for it; 8 it was to be seen no more than be felt.9 He stood confounded, and I took possession of his place; nor did he ever recover it, or ever, 10 I believe, suspect who was the author of his wrong. 11 Often, in after-life, has the sight of him smote me as I passed by him ;12 and often have I resolved to make him some reparation ; but it ended in good resolutions.13 Though I never renewed my 14 acquaintance with is derived from the game of with all their blunders, antiquated draughts (dames): damer un pion words, &c. &c. means, properly, to crown a 6 A la première question qui fut man.' We might also translate faite à notre écolier. Here, the here by et que ..... de débus- passive does not so much matter; quer ; but it would be somewhat it may even be better, to avoid the

repetition of on at so short an in1 Les jours se succédaient. terval (see above, note 3).

2 quoi que je fisse. Put a full ? mais ils ne le trouvèrent plus ; stop here (see page 24, note 19), or, simply, mais en vain. and do not translate 'till.

8 il regarda son gilet pour 3 We say faire une question à tâcher de l'apercevoir. quelqu'un, 'to ask one a question ; 9 Efforts inutiles ! il ne put pas accordingly, to translate here cor- plus le voir que le sentir. Put a rectly, see page 21, note ?, and full stop before the word Eforts, page 8, note6; when,' 'here, (page 24, note 19). toutes les fois que.

10 Jamais il....; jamais. 4 il portait aussitôt les doigts 11 de ce tort; or, de cette injustice d'un air distrait (or, ... doigts --de cette injure, in the widest acmachinalement) à; or, il jouait ceptation of this word. aussitôt avec.


12 j'ai éprouvé, à sa vue, un vif 5 gilet, not veste. Formerly, regret - repentir -- serrement de 'waistcoat' was called veste, in coeur, lorsque je passais près de lui; French; this word, veste, now cor- or, je me le suis reproché en voyant

jacket' only. It is passer près de moi mon ancien cato be regretted that the greater marade. part of even modern dictionaries 13 mais cela s'est borné d ; 'good are of no use on these points, as resolutions :' see page 16, notes, every new edition of them is at and page 47, note 13. best but the old ones reprinted, 4 'Use, in French, the preterite


him, I often sawl him, for be filled some inferior office ? in one of the courts of law in 3 Edinburgh. Poor fellow! 4 I believe he is dead; he took early to drinking."

W. Scott. (Autobiography.)


I was now in the twenty-third year of my residence in this island; and was so naturalized to the place, and the manner of living, that, could I have but enjoyed ? the certainty that no savages 8 would come to the place to disturb me, I could have been content to have capitulated for spending the rest of my time there, even to the last moment, till I had laid me down and died 10 like the old

indefinite (' have renewed'), and ? See page 38, note 3, page 29, leave

note 8, page 26, note 17, and the i See page 1, note 3, and page LA FONTAINE, page 6, note ?, and 55, note 8. There is here repetition page 38, note 5,-'but, seulement, of the action.

here. 2 une charge (or, un emploi) su 8 Translate by, no savage,' balterne.

with the verb in the singular. 3 cours de justice de.

Aucun and nul, meaning, as they 4 Pauvre garçon ! or, Pauvre do, pas un, 'not one,' are not, diable familiar.

as a rule, used in the plural, in 5 il s'adonna de bonne heure d French. The only cases which la boisson.

form an exception to this rule are, 6 J'en étais d. This word en, 1st, when aucun and nul are joined placed before certain verbs, such as with a noun which has no singular être, venir, rester, arriver, &c., in- (ex. aucunes funérailles); and, 2d, dicates the last term — whether when they are joined with a noun relatively or absolutely--of a pro- that is taken, in the plural, in angression; as, en venir d, &c. (' to other sense than in the singular be at last brought, or reduced, to,' (ex. aucunes troupes, ‘no troops,' &c.), en rester d, &c. ('to leave off 'no forces, 'no soldiers'). See, at.' &c.) See page 11, note 5 ; also for a breach of this rule the LA the LA FONTAINE, Fable XCIII., FONTAINE, page 45, note 3, and page 125, note 7. This en can look also page 87, note 4 only be translated into English by 9 We might advantageously cut the words ‘now,' 'at last, or the this sentence shorter, in French, like. Yet, here we might say, by merely saying, sans la crainte simply, in French, J'étais alors des sauvages. dans la, &c., just as we say, speak. 10 j'aurais été en quelque sorte ing of age, je suis dans ma vingt- content d'y (or, j'aurais volontiers troisième année.

consenti d y) passer le reste de mes

goat in the cave. I had also arrived to some little diversions and amusements, which made the time pass a great deal more pleasantly with me than it did before : 2 as, first, I had taught my Poll, as I noted before, to speak ;3 and he did it so familiarly, and talked so articulately and plain,4 that it was very pleasant to me; for I believe no bird ever spoke plainer ;5 and he lived with me no less than six-and-twenty years : 6 how long ? he might have lived afterwards, I know not, though I know they have a notion in the Brazils that they live & a hundred years. My dog was a very pleasant and loving companion to me for no less than sixteen years of my time, and then died of mere old age. As for my cats, they multiplied, as I have observed, to that degree, that I was obliged to shoot several of them at first, to keep them from devouring me and all I had; but, at length, when the two old ones 10 I brought with me were gone, 11 and after

jours (or, de ma vie), jusqu'au mo- full stop after 'plainer,' and leave ment ou je me serais éteint tran- out 'and,' which follows. quillement.

6 'than’ is always expressed by i je m'étais même ménagé (or, de before the cardinal numbers trouvé)—see paye 40, note 6_des un, deux, trois, &c., before la distractions et des amusements (or, moitié (half), le tiers (third), &c., de quoi me distraire-me divertir and before douzaine (dozen), ving-et m'amuser-me récréer.) taine (score), dizaine (half-a-score),

2 which,' &c., &c. ; simply, &c., instead of by que, as in a ressource qui m'avait manqué autres comparison of objects.-six-andfois. This sentence of Defoe is twenty ; see page 38, note 15. one of the many instances of loose 7 combien de temps; or, simply, writing observable even in the combien. best English authors : for what a 8 que ces oiseaux passent au superfluity of words is this, 'di- Brésil pour vivre. versions and amusements which 9 ils s'étaient tellement multipliés, make time pass pleasantly!' Put comme je l'ai déjà dit (or, fait oba full stop after autrefois, and server), see page 5, note que leave out 'as' in the translation. j'avais été obligé d'en tuer plusieurs

wais enseigné (or, appris) à à coups de fusil, afin de n'en être parler à mon perroquet, comme je pas dévoré avec (or, que de peur Cai dit plus haut (or, comme je l'ai qu'ils ne me dévorassent avec, &c., déjà dit).

j'avais été ... ...).—'all I had 4 et en articulant si distincte- supply the whole ellipsis, in ment.

French. 5 ne prononça mieux; or, ne 10 les deux plus vieux; or, les parla plus distinctement. Construct deux premiers. thus, 'in French, for the sake 11 To go,' used absolutely, in of emphasis : 'never, I believe,' the sense of 'to start,' 'to set &c.; leave out for,' and put a out,' is, in French, partir, not colon after ‘me.' Put, besides, à aller. See, besides, page 27, note

some time continually driving them from me, and letting them have no provision with me, they all ran wild into the woods, except two or three favourites, which I kept tame, and whose young, when they had any, I always drowned ;3 and these were part of my family. Besides these, I always kept two or three household kids about me, whom I taught to feed out of 5 my hand ; and I had two more 6 parrots, which talked pretty well, and would all call? Robin Crusoe, but none like my first; nor, indeed, did I take the pains with any of them that I had done with him. I had also several tame sea-fowls, whose names I knew not, that I caught? upon the shore, and cut their wings ;10 and the little stakes which I had planted before my castle wall being now grown up to a good thick grove, 11 these fowls all lived 12 among these low trees, and bred there, which was very agreeable to me ;13 so that, as I said above, I began to be very well contented with the life I led, if I could but have been secured from the dread of the sayages. 14-DEFOE. 13. But here, 'gone'seems, from derniers ; or, simply, pour lequel the context, to mean dead, and aussi j'avais pris beaucoup de should be rendered accordingly. peine.

i et que (page 17, note 6) jeus 9 je les avais attrapés (page 32, pendant quelque temps continuelle- note 4). 10 See page 10, note 10. ment chassé (page 19, note 5) les 11 grown up to,' &c. ; see page autres loin de moi (or, simply, et 6, note 5,- good thick grove,' d force de chasser les, &c.), sans bosquet d'une bonne épaisseur. leur rien donner à manger."

13 habitaient, in the sense of 'to 2 ils s'enfuirent tous dans les dwell ;' here, however, we might bois, et devinrent sauvages. . take it as well in the other sense,

3 dont j'avais grand soin de and translate likewise by vivaient. noyer les petits (page 35, end of 13 et y avaient leurs couvées ; de note 14) dès qu'ils venaient au cette façon ils contribuaient beaumonde. Put a full stop after monde, coup à mon divertissement. and leave out and these,' &c. 14 Ainsi donc, somme toute (or,

4 En outre, j'avais toujours près en somme), comme je l'ai dit plus de moi deux ou trois chevreaux haut, je commençais à être fort confamiliers ; or, Le reste de ma tent de la vie que je menais, à la maison consistait en deux ou trois réserve (or, à l'exception) de la chevreaux. 5 manger dans crainte à la crainte près que 6 et deux autres.

m'inspiraient les sauvages (page 6, 7 See page 45, note 4.

note 3); or, j'aurais été parfaité8 et j'avoue-page 14, note 13— ment satisfait de la vie . ... &c., (or, et il est vrai) que j'avais donné sans la crainte (or, n'eût été plus de soins à for, pris plus de crainte-or, si j'eusse seulement pu soin de) P'éducation de celui-qu'à m'affranchir ; or, me délivrer, de -que de-celle d'aucun des deux la crainte) des sauvages.



It may perhaps divert the curious reader, to give some account of my domestics, and 1 my manner of living in this country, during a residence of nine months and thirteen days. Having a head mechanically turned, and being likewise forced by necessity, I had made for myself 3 a table and chair convenient enough, out 4 of the largest trees in the 5 royal park. Two hundred 6 sempstresses were employed to make me shirts, and linen for my bed and table,7 all of the strongest and coarsest kind 8 they could get; which, however, they were forced to quilt together in several folds,9 for the thickest was some degrees 10 finer than lawa. Their linen is usually three inches wide, and three feet make 11 a piece. The sempstresses took my measure as I lay on the ground,12 one standing at my neck, and another at my mid-leg, 13 with a strong cord extended, that each held by the end,14 while a third measured the length of the cord with a rule of an inch long. 15 Then they measured my right thumb,16 and desired no more ; 17 for, by a

1 Peut-être le ... me saura-t-il 8 avec la plus forte toile ; see (page 32, note ) gré de lui donner page 1, note 8 quelques détails sur mon intérieur * $ which,' &c., mise en plusieurs (or, mon particulier) et sur. See doubles et piquée. page 49, note 8. It is not neces- 10 un peu. sary to repeat sur, here ; only, its 11 Leurs toiles (in this sense, in repetition points more to each of another sense, as above, between the two distinct things, which are notes 6 and ?, the word is linge) about to be considered, or related, ont en général trois pouces de larseparately.

geur (or, de large), et la longueur 2 Comme j'ai toujours eu des de trois pieds forme. See p. 96, n. 1. dispositions pour les arts mécani- 12 lorsque j'étais couché. ques, et que (page 17, note 6) j'étais 13 sur le gras de ma jambe. en outre.

14 et tenant chacune par un bout 3 je m'étais fait.-'a table and une grosse corde. chair ;' see page 20, note 11.

15° Simply, d'un pouce. 4 avec le bois.

16 le tour du pouce de ma main 5 See page 31, note 14.

droite. We might say, as in Eng6 See page 17, note 10.

lish, de mon pouce droit, but we do 7 See page 20, note 11, and page not commonly use this expression. 49, note 8

17 et ce fut assez.

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