district of Bokerdun, which was the cause of the mistake.

3. My march of the 23rd was so directed as that? I should be within twelve or fourteen miles of the enemy's camp on that day, which I supposed to be at Bokerdun. Instead of that, by the extension of their line to the eastward, I found myself within six miles of them. I there received intelligence 4 that they were going off ; at all events, whether they were about to go or to stay, I must have reconnoitred.6 I could not have reconnoitred? without taking the whole of my small force; and, when I gots near them, it would have been difficult, if not impossible, to retire in front of their numerous cavalry. But I determined to attack them, as I really believed the intelligence I received at Naulniah to be true.10

4. When I found the intelligence I received at Naulniah was false, that I had their whole army in my front,11 and that they had a most formidable position, three or four times my number of infantry only, 12 and a vast quantity of cannon, 13 I deliberated whether I should withdraw, and attack on the following morning, according to the plan.

5. The consequence of my withdrawing 14 would have been, that I should have been followed to Naulniah by their cavalry, and possibly should have found it difficult

See page 28, note 10, and page 6 il m'aurait fallu reconnaître 117, note 14. We also use causer (or, faire une reconnaissance). (to cause, to occasion) : être la 7 See page 44, note , and page cause de, &c., may, however, be 38, note 3: Observe that could' used, and the rule 10 of page 28 is here conditional (for should be is not absolute in this case; but, able'), not imperfect indicative before que, the article must be left (for ' was able as at page 38, out, as, vous êtes cause que je me note 3. suis brálé les doigts ("I have burnt 8 Use the compound of the conmy fingers through you'). - ditional.—' to get,' here, arriver. . which ;' goe page 7, note 17.

y en face. ? so as that,' de telle façon que. 10 Simply, sur la foi des ren

s See page 14, note 5, and page seignements que j avais reçus à N22, note 8.-within,' à environ. Il en face de moi.

4 «There I received (page 254. 12 une infanterie seule (or, ... note 1) intelligence.' — intelli- d elle seule) Trois ou quatre fois plus gence,' avis, in this sense, preceded forte que la mienne. by no article.

13 Use the plural. 5 de toute manière.

14 See page 21, note 3.

to get there. They would have harassed me all that day; and, as I had only ground fortified by myself to secure my baggage in, it was ten to one whether I should not have lost? a part of it during the attack on the following morning; and, at all events, I should have been obliged to leave more than one battalion to secure it. During the attack of the 23rd, the enemy did not know where the baggage was : and, although it was so close to them, they never went near it.2

6. Besides this, on the other hand, there was a chance. indeed 3 a certainty, that the enemy would hear that Colonel Stevenson also would move upon them on the 24th, and would withdraw their infantry and guns in the night. I therefore determined to make4 the attack.

7. The plan concerted, you will observe, failed, from the deficiency of our information regarding the enemy's position, and, consequently, my coming too near them on the 23rd, with my camp, baggage, &c.

8. The enemy's first position was as shown in the plan. The Kaitna is a river with? steep banks, impassable for carriages everywhere, excepting at Peepulgaum and Waroor. I determined, from the ground on which the cavalry was first formed, to attack the enemy's left flank and rear, and to cross the river at Peepulgaum. I intended at that time to throw my right up to 9 Assye.

9. For a length of time 10 they did not see my infantry, or 11 discover my design. When they did discover it, they altered their position, and threw their left up to Assye,

1 myself,' moi. - 'in ;' leave 7 d, followed by no article. out this word.-' it was ten,' &c., Notice this use of d, instead of il y avait dix à parier contre un avec : in the same way we say, un que j'aurais perdu.

homme à cheveux blancs, l'Homme 2 Simply, auprès.

au masque de fer, la Poule aux 3 je dirai même.--Construct, “it ceufs d'or, &c.If, however, the was likely, indeed certain.

Kaitna has high as well as steep 4 'to give.

banks, the French epithet for it 5 remarquez-le bien. -'to fail,' will be rivière encaissée. here, échouer.-' from ; see page 8 See page 126, note 17. 137, note 6.

9 'to throw up to,' porter jus6.such as it is (se trouve,—to qud. avoid the awkward repetition of 10 Pendant assez longtemps. éire) indicated on.'

11 See page 42, note 8.

and formed across the ground between the Kaitna and Assye ;1 but in more than one line. Luckily, they did not occupy the ford at Peepulgaum: if they had, I must have gone lower down ;3 and possibly I should have been obliged to make a road 4 across the river, which 5 would have taken so much time, that I should not have had day enough for the attack.

10. When I saw that they had got their left to Assye, I altered my plan; and determined to manœuvre by my left, and push the enemy upon the nullah, knowing that the village of Assye must 6 fall when the right should be beat. Orders were given accordingly.

11. However, by one of those unlucky accidents which frequently happen, the officer commanding? the piquets, which were upon the right, led immediately up to the village of Assye: the 74th regiment, which was on the right of the second line, and 8 was ordered to support 9 the piquets, followed them. There was a large break in our line 10 between these corps and those ll on the left. They were exposed to a most terrible 12 cannonade from 18 Assye, and were charged by the cavalry belonging to the campoos; consequently, in the piquets and the 74th regiment, we 14 sustained the greatest part of our loss.15 One company of the piquets, of one officer and fifty rank and file, 16 lost the officer and forty-four rank and file. This company belonged to the battalion left at Naulniah.

l'on the ground which sepa- note 9). rates the K—from A,

9 soutenir, or appuyer, here, Supply the ellipsis, which, as not supporter. we have repeatedly seen above, is 10 Il resta un grand espace not allowed in French.

(or, intervalle) dans notre ligne 3 il m'aurait fallu (or, j'aurais rompue. été obligé dej'aurais eu d) des 11" "those which were.' cendre plus bas. See page 44, 12 See page 96, note 10. note ?, and page 38, note 3.

13 ‘from,' partie de (lit., 'pro+ chemin.

ceeded-come-from '). 5 See page 7, note 17.

14 “it is in ... &c., that we have.' 6 Use the imperfect tense. —'to sustain,' here, éprouver, or 7 who commanded.'

essuyer. 8 and which ;' see page 56, 15" le plus de pertes. note 3. _'was ordered ;' turn, had 16 rank and file,' hommes (or order-or, the order' (page 21, soldats).

12. Another bad 1 consequence resulting from this mistake was, the necessity of introducing the cavalry into the action at too early a period. I had ordered it to watch the motionss of the enemy's cavalry4 hanging upon our right; and, luckily, it charged in time to save the remains of the 74th, and the piquets. It was thus brought into 6 the cannonade; horses and men were lost: it charged among broken infantry, and separated ; the unity of the body was lost, and it was no longer possible to use it, as I had intended 7 when I placed it in the third line, to pursue and cut up the defeated and broken enemy, and thus makes the victory still more complete than it was.

13. As I had foreseen, the corps at Assye was not defeated till worked upon 10 by the centre and left of our line, notwithstanding the movement of the piquets, the 74th, and the cavalry; and then it went off directly, and was cut up.

N.B. The Juah river, or nullah, has steep banks, impassable for carriages, scarcely passable for horses.

i fâcheuse (fem.).
2 of introducing too soon,' &c.
3 mouvements.

6 au milieu de.

? See page 5, note 8. Turn here, 'as I had had the intention of it.'

4 We rather say cavalerianor infanterie ennemie (adjective) than .... de l'ennemi (substantive, as in English). — banging upon,' qui ne cessait de rôder aux alentours de.

5 à temps pour.

8 See page 35, note 1,

9 See page 29, note 22, and page 15, note 9.

10 'to work upon,' here, attaquer; see page 29, note 9,


Strategic Operations - The River Alma-Position and Force of the

Russians-Earthwork Batteries to defend the Heights—The French Charge Advance of the British Line-Gallantry of Lord RaglanPassage of the River, and Brilliant Charge up the Heights — Sanguinary Struggle--The Russian Battery taken, and Retreat of the Enemy.

HEIGHTS OF THE ALMA, September 21. The order in which our army advanced was in columns of brigades in deploying distance, our left protected by a line of skirmishers, of cavalry, and of horse artillery. The advantage of the 2 formation was, that our army, in case of a strong attack from cavalry and infantry on the left or rear, could assume the form of a hollow square, with the baggage in the centre. Our great object was 5 to gain the right of the position, so that our attacking parties 6 could be sheltered by the vertical fire of the fleets.

We had, in fact, altered our base of operations. As we marched forward to Barljanak, we allowed the enemy to deprive us of our old basis of operations, in order that we might get a new one. For this purpose the baggage was brought up and covered by the 4th Division, and the Cossacks were allowed to sweep the country in our rear far behind us. 10 Our new principle, in fact, was to open communication with our fleets, and as far ll as possible obtain their material and moral aid. In advancing towards the sea obliquely, on the morning of the 19th, we were

1 d des distances qui permettaient within (but not into) a square.' de se déployer.

5 L'essentiel était de. % that.'

6 nos troupes (or, colonnes) d'at8 ou sur les derrières.

taque ; or, simply, nos attaques. * se former en un carré, dans 7 par le fait. lequel elle en fèrmerait son bagage. 8 ancienne (fem. here),-in this Notice this difference between en sense. and dans : en (not dans) must al. 9 See page 7, note 7. ways be used to indicate a change 10 in our rear far,' &c. ; sinuof form, the conversion of a thing ply, d une grande distance der. into another; thus, se former dans rière nous.- were allowed ;' see un carré would mean to form page 21, note 9. 11 autant,

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